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Coins of Elymais

Also known as Elam, Susiana or Khuzistan

Introduction
Kings of Elymais
(index)
     Kamnaskirid Dynasty (c. 150 B.C. - ca. late first century A.D.)
     "Arsacid" Dynasty (c. A.D. 50 - 200)
     Late Elymean Kings (early third century A.D.)
References


Introduction

For consistency, the chronology and attributions used for Elymais on this web page mainly follow Alram and Le Rider instead of  earlier catalogs based on the obsolete chronologies of de Morgan and Hill.

Very little is known about the history of Elymais, a quasi-independent kingdom once located in the foothills of the Zagros mountains at the head of the Persian Gulf  between Babylonia and Persis in the southwestern part of present-day Iran. Susa was its capital and major trade center. After a short period of independence under Kamnaskires I, following the battle of Apamea in 188 B.C., Elymais was conquered by the Parthians under Mithradates I (c. 171 - 138 B.C.). During the internal disruption following the death of Mithradates II (c. 123 - 88 B.C.), Kamnaskires II was able to restore a measure of Elymean independence, and his dynasty was to endure until about A.D. 100, when it was replaced by an "Arsacid" dynasty, or at least one which used Parthian names. With the advent of the Sasanian empire in Persia, Elymais finally lost it's independence to Ardashir I in A.D. 227.

The early coinage was of Seleucid style tetradrachms in good silver followed fairly soon by debased tetradrachms drachms of increasingly eastern style using Pahlavi for the inscriptions. Elymean coinage continued down to the overthrow of the Parthian empire by the Sasanians.

Elymais struck coins from ca. 150 B.C. until their defeat by the Sasanians in A.D. 227. Most coins show an anchor, perhaps recalling their association with the Seleucid Empire, and the more ancient star-in-crescent symbol of the Achaemenids.


Kings of Elymais


Kamnaskirid Dynasty (c. 150 BC - ca. late first century A.D.)

Kamnaskires I Megas Sôter (c. 147 - 145 B.C.)

Susa mint (Alram 429-430)

No image availableKamnaskires I Megas Sôter (c. 147 - 145 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head right
Rev/ Zeus (Bel) seated 3/4 left on throne; four-line legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΚΑΜΝΙΣΕΙΡΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ
- Alram 429
- Le Rider, Revue Numismatique 1969, 10
- Fischer, Chiron 1971, 3

No image availableKamnaskires I Megas Sôter (c. 147 - 145 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head right
Rev/ Apollo seated 3/4 left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; four-line legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΚΑΜΝΙΣΕΙΡΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ
- Alram 430
- Le Rider, Revue Numismatique 1969, 11
- Fischer, Chiron 1971, 2a
 

Kamnaskires II Nikephoros (c. 145 - 139/8 B.C.)

Susa mint (Alram 431-444)

PDC 5713Kamnaskires II Nikephoros (c. 145 - 139/8 B.C.)
AE Tetradrachm, 16.45 g
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head right; EA monogram behind
Rev/ Apollo seated 3/4 left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; three-line legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΜΝΙΣΙΡΟΥ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΣ
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group, CNG 55, Lot 779
- Alram 431
- BMC Arabia LII, 6
- Mörkholm EHC 642
- Le Rider 1965, 85
- Fischer, Chiron 1971, 1c

PDC 21643Kamnaskires II Nikephoros (c. 145 - 139/8 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm 16.57g.
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head right; EA monogram behind
Rev/ Apollo seated 3/4 left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; three-line legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΜΝΙΣΙΡΟΥ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΣ
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group,
- Triton VII (Jan 2004) lot 518 (this coin)
- Alram 431
- BMC Arabia pl. LIII, 6
- de Morgan p.466, 1
- Le Rider Suse pl. VII, D (same dies)
- Morkholm, EHC (1991) 642
 

Two others kings, probably usurpers, rule during this period in the city of Susa. Despite Alram's attribution, they seem not to be Elymean kings. These two are Okkonapses and Tigraios:

Okkonapses (c. 139/8 B.C.) (Usurper in Susa?)

Susa mint (Alram 445-446)

PDC 34085Okkonapses (c. 139/8 B.C.) (Usurper in Susa?)
AR Tetradrachm 
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head right; EA monogram behind
Rev/ Apollo seated 3/4 left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; three-line legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΟΚΚΑΝΑΨΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ
Note/ struck at Susa in the brief period between the reigns of the Seleucid king Demetrius II and Mithradates I of Parthia (c. 145 B.C. - 139 or 138 B.C.).
- Alram 445
- Auctiones 13 (1983), 421 (this coin)
- Boston MFA, 1984.580 (this coin)
- Münzen und Medaillen 66 (Oct 1984), lot 302 (this coin)
- Le Rider, "Deux nouveaux tétradrachmes frappés à Suse", Revue Numismatique, 1978, 33, fig. 1 (this coin)

No image availableOkkonapses (c. 139/8 B.C.) (Usurper in Susa?)
AE 1/2 unit
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed and radiate head right
Rev/ Apollo seated 3/4 left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ [?]ΑΝΑΨΟΥ
Note/ 3 examples in BN Paris
- Alram 446
- Le Rider 1965, 65
 

Tigraios (c. 138/7 - 133/2 B.C.) (Usurper in Susa?)

Susa mint (Alram 447-453)

PDC 4691Tigraios (137-133 B.C.)
Tetradrachm, 16.14 g
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ diademed head; in field, monogram
Rev/ Apollo with bow and arrow seated on omphalos
Note/ struck at Susa in the brief period between the reigns of the Seleucid king Demetrius II and Mithradates I of Parthia (c. 145 B.C. - 139 or 138 B.C.).
Photo/ by permission Dr. Busso Peus Nachf
- Alram 447 (this coin)
- BMC Arabia not listed
- de Morgan not listed
- Le Rider 1978, 2
- Peus 363, lot 5073 (this coin)
 

Darius (before c. 129 B.C.) (Usurper in Susa?)'

Susa mint (Alram not listed)

PDC 10492Darius (before c. 129 B.C.)
Tetradrachm, 16.46 g
Mint/ Susa
Obv/ head right with diadem
Rev/ Apollo with arrow and bow seated left on omphalos, legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΑΡΕΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΥ ΝΑΝΑΙΕΝΩ(Ν)
Note/ previously unpublished tetradrachm where the last word of the reverse inscription ΝΑΝΑΙΕΝΩ(Ν) indicates Susa with its famous sanctuary of Artemis-Nanaia (cfr. Le Rider, Suse p. 295 ff.). Consequently, the timing of the Arsacid conquest of Susa will have to be reinterpreted
Photo/ by permission Dr. Busso Peus Nachf
- Alram not listed
- Peus 368, Lot 330 (this coin)
 

Kamnaskires III and Anzaze (c. 82/1 - 76/5 B.C.)

Susa mint (Alram 454-457)

PDC 5292Kamnaskires II and Queen Anzaze (82/1 - 76/5 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm, 15.96 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; anchor symbol behind
Rev/ Zeus seated left, holding scepter and Nike, who crowns him; monogram below his arm
Note/ this example is unusual in that it has a monogram in place of the usual small inscription under Zeus' arm
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group
- Alram 454 variant
- CNG 54, Lot 858 (this coin)
 

Kamnaskires IV (c. 74/3 - 56/5 B.C.)

Susa mint (Alram 458-462). Very rare coins.

PDC 21648Kamnaskires IV (A.D. 74/3 - 56/5 B.C.)
AR Tetradrachm 16.08 g.
Obv/ Diademed bust left; anchor symbol behind
Rev/ Zeus seated left, holding scepter and Nike, who crowns him; monogram in inner left field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΜΝΑΣΚΙΡΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΕΓ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΣ ΚΑΜΝΑΙΣ,  [...]Σ (date) in exergue
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group Triton VII, lot 523
- Alram 458
- BMC Arabia cf. pl. LIII, 8 (Kamnaskires III) = de Morgan pg. 467, 3 (Kamnaskires II)
- de Morgan p.467, 3 (Kamnaskires II)
- Le Rider Suse cf. pl. LXXII, 13
- Numismatic Fine Arts 25 (29 November 1990), lot 249 (this coin)
- Schweizerische Kreditanstalt 3 (19 April 1985), lot 286
 

Kamnaskires V (late first century A.D.)

Susa mint (Alram 463-466)

PDC 5717Kamnaskires V (A.D. 58 - 106)
AR Hemidrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group, CNG 55, Lot 773c

PDC 5714
Kamnaskires V (A.D. 58 - 106)
AR Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group, CNG 55, Lot 773e

gclark_ec106_small.jpg (77x75 -- 1809 bytes)Kamnaskires V (A.D. 58 - 106)
AR Tetradrachm, 15.37g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust left, star and anchor
Rev/diademed bust of Kamnaskires VI(?) left, eagle above, monogram below chin
Photo/ by permission Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities, EC106

grelam2_small.jpg (76x75 -- 1691 bytes)
Kamnaskires V (A.D. 58 - 106)
AR Drachm, 16 mm, 3.9 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust of Kamnaskires left
Rev/ uncertain male bust left surrounded by blundered Greek legends Photo/ by permission Calgary Coin & Antique Gallery
- Sear GIC 5884

grelam3_small.jpg (75x75 -- 1879 bytes)
Kamnaskires V (A.D. 58 - 106)
AR Drachm, 16 mm, 3.9 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust of Kamnaskires left
Rev/ uncertain male bust left surrounded by blundered Greek legends
Photo/ by permission Calgary Coin & Antique Gallery
- Sear GIC 5884
 

Late Kamnaskires successors (c. late first century A.D.)

Late Kamnaskires V successors which require further attribution. Characteristics: large silver or bronze tetradrachms and drachms
Susa mint (Alram pl. 15, NB 1-2)

PDC 5720Unknown Successor to Kamnaskires V  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/
Rev/
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group, CNG 55, Lot 773d

PDC 3522Kamnaskires "B" ? (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.35 g
Mint/unknown, undated
Obv/  Bust diademed l. with long pointed beard and bushy back hair; behind, anchor symbol and star crescent to l., Y between two other letters (?)
Rev/  Jumbled remains of bust and inscription BM 31 pl. XXXIX, 11 and p. CLXXXIX, pl. LIII, 12 (Oman coll.)
Note/ Very rare issue, unknown until Sir Charles Oman acquired two specimens and presented one of them to the BM in 1918. The distinguishing marks of the issue are the king's bushy back hair, the absence of hair on the forehead, and the occurrence of letters or a symbol before the portrait. de Morgan Elymais, p. 33, 19 adopts G. F. Hill's classification and cited the BM coin, but the piece he illustrates from his own collection in pl. II, 5 is actually from the much commoner issue C, like his pl. II, 1-4.
Photo/ by permission Harlan J. Berk, Ltd.

cc10125_small.jpg (78x75 -- 1767 bytes)"Kamnaskires C" (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.60g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust diademed left with long pointed beard; behind, anchor symbol and star within crescent
Rev/ jumbled remains of bust with short beard and inscription
Photo/ by permission Harlan J. Berk, Ltd. Lot 178
- BMC 14

cc10127_small.jpg (79x75 -- 1761 bytes)
"Kamnaskires C" (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.70g
Obv/ bust diademed left with long pointed beard; behind, anchor symbol and star within crescent
Rev/ jumbled remains of bust with short beard and inscription
Photo/ by permission Harlan J. Berk, Ltd. Lot 177
- BMC 14

PDC 4907
Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.55 g on a large flan
Mint/unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bearded bust left with trident or anchor behind with star and crescent.
Rev/ stylized head left with legends around on four sides in corrupt Greek. The rev head could be Jupiter, Herakles or an unknown successor to Kamnaskires.
Note/ these coins weigh much the same as contemporary Parthian tetradrachms being struck in Mesopotamia, and they should be termed such rather than double octobols, as de Morgan calls it
Photo/eBay Item #309588471 by permission Youssef Mishriki 
- de Morgan Manuel de Numismatique Orientale Fig 233 variant (Kamnaskires "C", star without crescent)
- cf. Mitchiner ACW 703-705 variant
- cf. BMC pl. XXXIX, 3

si_kamna_small.jpg (76x75 -- 1752 bytes)
Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Tetradrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/
Rev/
Prov/ by permission Smithsonian Institution, National Numismatic Collection

smit_ely4dr_small.jpg (79x75 -- 1612 bytes)Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Fourrées AE Tetradrachm, 15.3 g, 29x25 mm
Mint/ unknown, c. 100 AD
Obv/ bust left with pointed beard - Anchor, crescent & star
Rev/ crude head left with short beard - legend (?) around
Note/ originally silver plated, this tetradrachm has a very low silver content
Photo/ by permission Doug Smith's Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
- Sear GIC 5888

sayles_k704_small.jpg (79x75 -- 1738 bytes)Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.68 g
Mint/unknown, undated
Obv/ bust of king left, star , crescent and trident behind
Rev/ Indistinct figure within square legend
Photo/ by permission Wayne G. Sayles
- Mitchiner, ACW 706

[Kamnaskires VI]Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Tetradrachm, 14.67 g, 28 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing earring, torque (?) and diademed tiara. Star within crescent above anchor with two bars, to right
Rev/ traces of striking. Partial blundered Greek legend
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5889
- Mitchiner ACW 706

cc12703_small.jpg (78x75 -- 1689 bytes)Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Drachm, 3.88g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ Bust left; to right, anchor with star and crescent above, Rx-Bearded bust left (indistinct) in square formed by blundered Greek legend
Rev/ The BM specimens have reverse "wholly degraded into collection of dashes or smoothed away"
Photo/ by permission Harlan J. Berk, Ltd.
- Sear GIC 5888 (tetradrachm)
- BM 19-30

t900_small.jpg (75x75 -- 1803 bytes)Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Tetradrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust of King l.; star and crescent above anchor in field to r.
Rev/ degenerated head. within inscription
Prov/
- Alram pl. 15, NB 1
- Sear GIC 5888-5889

p6_small.jpg (86x75 -- 1780 bytes)Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Tetradrachm, approx. 1" by 7/8"
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust of king left with long beard and wide fringe of hair below diadem; behind, star within crescent above anchor
Rev/ series of dashes
Photo/ eBay auction #134309078 (bauerbrain)
 - Alram pl. 15, NB 1

PDC 1076Kamnaskires VI (?)  (c. late first cent. A.D.)
AE Tetradrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left with pointed beard - Anchor, crescent & star
Rev/ crude head left with short beard - legend (?) around
Photo/ by permission Alex Filer (eBay auction #130535103)
- Alram pl. 15, NB 1
 

"Arsacid" Dynasty

Except for their names, there is no evidence these kings are connected with the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia.

Orodes I

Characteristics: Obv/ diademed bust left wearing with inscription URUD,  Rev/ legend around diademed bust left. Susa mint (Alram pl. 15, NB 3 as a Kamnaskires successor)

These are rare bronze or billon tetradrachms; two have been published in Augé C., "Quelques monnaies d'Elymaïde," Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, November 1976; and Renaud, N., "Un nouveau souverain d'Elymaïde," Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, January 1999 pp. 1-5. Since those publications, several have been sold at auction.

While their style is very different, they are probably minted by the same king. On both obverses, there is a fragment of Aramaic legend, either UR. or .UD
The only thing that seems to be sure is that they were issued in the middle of first century either during reigns of latest Kamnaskires (style of bust and reverse) or during the transition between Kamnaskirid and "Orodes" dynasties.

As this type precedes any previous known design of Orodes I, but bears his name, it could be taken for a very early transitional issue. The alternative chosen here is to name this ruler Orodes I and reclassify all coins bearing a Parthian tiara as issues of Orodes II, making the traditional second Orodes become Orodes III. Links in Parthian coinage during the reign of Orodes II of Parthia (57-38 BC), to increased control in Elymais. This is clearly demonstrated by the presence of the "anchor" symbol on certain Parthian Drachm reverses. The most likely explanation is that these coins were minted under the authority of Orodes II of Parthia, or one of his sons, who reintroduced direct Arsacid rule in Elymais. This explains the sudden appearance of Arsacid names into the Elymais and the change in regal iconography. This hypothesis is at sharp odds with the previous explanation of the dates and chronology of the Elymais, which places Orodes I circa 50-100 AD. The existence of this sort of a transitional issue between the Kamnaskirid dynasty and the Arsacid dynasty in Elymais weakens the ideological distinction made previously by showing a drastic break in the stylistic continuum. [sale notes, CNG 60, lot 1041]

PDC 5983
Orodes I (ca 57-38 BC or later?)
AE Tetradrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust left, with long beard; star within crescent above anchor with one bar, before king, Aramaic legend, UR.
Rev/ Blundered legend around diademed bust left
Photo/ by permission Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung
- cf. Alram, pl. 15, NB 3 (Kamnaskires successor)
- cf. AugéBSFN (1976)
- Gorny Sale 96 (7 Jun 1999), lot 252 (this coin)
- cf. Renaud (1999) pp. 1-5

PDC 5984
Orodes I (ca 57-38 BC or later?)
AE Tetradrachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust left, with long beard; star within crescent above anchor with one bar, before king, Aramaic legend, .UD
Photo/ by permission Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung
- cf. Alram, pl. 15, NB 3 (Kamnaskires successor)
- cf. AugéBSFN (1976)
- Gorny Sale 92 (7 Nov 1998), lot 288 (this coin)
- cf. Renaud ( 1999) pp. 1-5

PDC 13468Orodes I (ca 57-38 BC or later?)
Billon Tetradrachm, 15.57 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust left, with long beard; star within crescent above anchor with one bar, before king, Aramaic legend
Rev/ Blundered legend around diademed bust left
Note/ Part of (or related to) a very rare issue first obtained by the BM in 1918. Sir Charles Oman acquired two specimens and presented one to the BM, keeping the piece with the partial legend or additional symbols, which is depicted in the supplementary plates (LIII, 12). That issue is distinguished from its earlier prototypes by the clear articulation of the shoulder guards on the cuirass, the lack of forelocks before the face, and the bushy projection of hair at the back of the head. Some subtle distinctions indicate a date of issue for this coin slightly earlier than that of the BMC specimen: the torques are simpler and end in front rather than back, and the bust is more squared off and has a naturalistic eye gazing to the side. More consistent with later issues, the star within the crescent has degraded to being little more than a pellet, as on the later issues of Orodes I. The inscription on the BMC coin is not at all clear, but appears different. The inscription on this coin clearly bears the name of Orodes, lacking only the later title "Malk" or "Malka."
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group
- cf. Alram, pl. 15, NB 3 (Kamnaskires successor)
- Bell, "New Inscription Alters Elymais Type Chronology," in The Celator, (April 2002), p. 38 (this coin)
- cf. BMC Arabia, p. clxxxix (note), pl. LIII, 12
- CNG 60, lot 1041 (this coin)

PDC 18178Orodes I (ca 57-38 BC or later?)
AE Tetradrachm, 15.40 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed bust left, with long beard; star within crescent above anchor with one bar, before king, Aramaic legend
Rev/ Blundered legend around diademed bust left
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group
- cf. Alram, pl. 15, NB 3 (Kamnaskires successor)
- cf. BMC Arabia, p. clxxxix (note), pl. LIII, 12
- CNG 63, lot 884 (this coin)
- cf. de Morgan, pl. 36, 4 ('Kamnaskires D')
 

Orodes II

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left with tiara decorated with anchor,  Rev/ dashes (Alram 467-470 as Orodes I)

[Orodes I]Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 3.43 g, 13 x 14 mm, axis 11h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ bust of Artemis right; partial Greek (?) legend
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5892
- Dobbins Orodes I A/1

smit_elydr-1_small.jpg (76x75 -- 1501 bytes)Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 2.6g, 14 mm
Mint/ unknown, early 2nd Cent. A.D.
Additional images/ comparison image of Orodes II, Phraates and Orodes III
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ Artemis bust right; Greek legend = 'King Orodes'
Photo/ by permission Doug Smith's Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
- Sear GIC 5892

[Orodes I]Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 3.52 g, 13 mm, axis 11h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ bust of Artemis, right. Partial Greek (?) legend
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5892
- Dobbins Orodes I A/1

[Orodes I]Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 3.85 g, 15 x 13 mm, axis 12h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard (anchor designs hidden in beard) and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ field filled with dashes; anchor
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5895 var.
- Dobbins Orodes I A/4v.

[Orodes I]Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 2.40 g, 15 x 13 mm, axis 11h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ field filled with dashes; anchor
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5895 var.
- Dobbins Orodes I A/4v.

[Orodes I]Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 3.43 g, 15 mm, axis 12h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar solid border around
Rev/ field filled with dashes; large anchor
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5895 var.
- Dobbins Orodes I A/4v.

JLorodesk55_small.jpg (75x77 -- 1644 bytes)Orodes II (c. A.D. 100?)
AE Drachm, 15 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with anchor; to right, star within crescent above anchor with one bar
Rev/ field filled with dashes; large anchor
Photo/ by permission Quadriga Ancients
 

Phraates

King Phraates was son of Urud Malka (Orodes), who ruled around middle of the second century A.D.
Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left with tiara decorated with crescent (Alram 471-476) 

[Phraates]Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 3.62 g, 15 mm, axis 12h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, with long beard and wearing diademed tiara ornamented with dotted crescent. Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right
Rev/ dashes arranged like palms
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5902
- Dobbins Phraates A/3


smit_elydr-2_small.jpg (82x75 -- 1702 bytes)Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 2.6g, 14x12 mm
Mint/ unknown, mid 2nd Cent. A.D.
Additional images/ comparison image of Orodes I, Phraates and Orodes III
Obv/ bust left, anchor, crescent & star
Rev/ dashes
Photo/ by permission Doug Smith's Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
- Sear GIC 5902

[Phraates]Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 2.76 g, 15 x 13 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara with two dotted crescents. Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right. Greek legend, left.
Rev/ Artemis standing right; Greek legend
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5898
- Dobbins Phraates B/1

[Phraates]Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 2.60 g, 13 x 14 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara with two dotted crescents (?). Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right.
Rev/ diadem; pellet within crescent to each side
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5901
- Dobbins Phraates B/2

[Phraates]Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 3.57 g, 15 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long, straight beard wearing diademed tiara with two dotted crescents(?). Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right.
Rev/ eagle facing; four crescents
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5900v.
- Dobbins Phraates B/4

[Phraates]Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 2.87 g, 13 x14 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long, straight beard wearing diademed tiara with two dotted crescents (?). Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right.
Rev/ eagle facing; no crescents
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5900v.
- Dobbins Phraates B/5v.

gclark_ec107_small.jpg (75x75 -- 1633 bytes)Phraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust left, star in crescent and trident
Rev/ pattern of dashes
Photo/ by permission Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities
- de Morgan 36

ObversePhraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ Bearded bust, facing. Trident to right, crescent and star above
Rev/ Eagle, wings spread
Photo/ by permission Sam Kazmi, NumisArt
- de Morgan 37a

ObversePhraates (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 2.87 g, 15 x 13 mm, axis 12h
Obverse: Bust facing with long, straight beard wearing diademed tiara with two dotted crescents (?). Pellet within crescent above anchor with one bar, to right
Rev/ eagle facing; no crescents
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5900 variant
- Dobbins B/5 variant (Phraates)
 

Orodes III

Characteristics: Obv/ Narrow bust facing wearing long beard and diademed tiara decorated with hooks on crest (Alram 477-478 as Orodes II)

[Orodes II]Orodes III (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Tetradrachm, 14.05 g, 25 mm, axis n/a
Mint/ unknown, undated
Additional images/ Large image
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ field filled with dashes
Prov/
- Alram 477 (Orodes II)
- Mitchiner ACW 711
- Sear GIC 5903


[Orodes II]Orodes III (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 3.08 g, 15 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ radiate bust of Artemis right; Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend around
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Alram 478 (Orodes II)
- Dobbins Orodes II A/1
- Sear GIC 5904

ObverseOrodes III (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 3.82 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ radiate bust of Artemis right; Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend around
Photo/ eBay Item #155330589, Pegasi Numismatics
- Alram 478 (Orodes II)
- de Morgan 44

9824294_small.jpg (81x75 -- 2072 bytes)Orodes III (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm, 3.59 g, 15 mm, axis 1h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ series of dashes
Photo/ eBay auction #128155608 Pegasi Numismatics
- Alram 478 variant (drachm) (Orodes II)
- de Morgan 46

elymais_small.jpg (77x75 -- 1487 bytes)Orodes III (c. A.D. 150?)
AE Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bust facing with long beard wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ series of dashes
Photo/ eBay auction #52808709 paws1
- Alram 478 variant (drachm) (Orodes II)
- Sear GIC 5905
 

Kamnaskires-Orodes

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides (Alram 479-486 as Kamnaskires-Orodes III)

smit_elydr-3_small.jpg (82x75 -- 1620 bytes)Kamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE Drachm, 2.6g, 14x12 mm
Mint/ unknown, late 2nd Cent. A.D.
Additional images/ comparison image of Orodes I, Phraates and Orodes III
Obv/ bearded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ series of dashes
Photo/ by permission Doug Smith's Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
- Alram 480 variant (drachm) (as Kamnaskires-Orodes III)
- Sear GIC 5910


ObverseKamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE Drachm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bearded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ six dashes
Photo/ by permission Karl Stube Timeless Treasures
- 1965 Seaby Greek Coins, #2620

PDC 1008Kamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE Drachm, 16 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ bearded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ series of dashes across the field
Photo/ by permission Atrader eBay auction #121349523

[Kamnaskires Orodes III]Kamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE Drachm, 3.79 g, 15 mm, axis 12h (axis of dashes)
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ earded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ field filled with dashes
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5910
- Mitchiner ACW 719
- Dobbins (as Kamnaskires-Orodes III) A/2

pers3_small.jpg (78x75 -- 1630 bytes)Kamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ dearded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ field filled with dashes
Photo/ by permission Sam Kazmi, NumisArt

ObverseKamnaskires-Orodes (c. A.D. 180?)
AE Drachm, 16 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ earded bust facing wearing diadem; hair in bunches at sides; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two bars
Rev/ field filled with dashes
Photo/ eBay auction #140652670  Gerard de Roo (callias)
- Sear 5910
 

Late Elymean Kings (early third century A.D.)

See for this period: Augé Curiel, et Le Rider, Terrasses sacrées de Bard-è Néchandeh et Masjid-i Soleiman. Les trouvailles monétaires. Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran. Tome XLIV. Paris, 1979

First indeterminate king (de Morgan's Orodes IV)

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left,  Rev/ Bust of Artemis. No legend. Same king as Kamnaskires-Orodes?
(Alram 490 as Orodes V)

[Orodes IV]First indeterminate King (de Morgan's Orodes IV) (c. A.D. 200?)
AE Drachm, 2.79 g, 13 mm, axis 2h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed and cuirassed bust with forked beard; crescent to right
Rev/ Bust of Queen Ulfan or Artemis-Tyche (?), left
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5917v.


m229_small.jpg (85x75 -- 1503 bytes)First indeterminate King (de Morgan's Orodes IV) (c. A.D. 200?)
AE Drachm, 11-14 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ head of king left
Rev/ helmeted bust of Artemis-Tyche left, anchor behind
Photo/ by permission Patrick Passmans
- Mitchiner ACW 720
- BMC XLII, 7-12
 

King Orodes and Queen Ulfan (de Morgan's Orodes IV)

(Alram 488-489 as Orodes IV and Ulfan)

[Orodes IV]King Orodes and Queen Ulfan (de Morgan's Orodes IV) (c. A.D. 190?)
AE Drachm, 3.44 g, 14 mm, axis 11h
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed and cuirassed bust left with forked beard and large bunch of hair on top; Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left
Rev/ bust of Queen Ulfan or Artemis-Tyche (?), left; anchor behind. Partial Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5916 variant

 

King Orodes alone (de Morgan's Orodes V)

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left,  Rev/ Bust of Artemis (Alram, not listed)

No image availableNo image of this coin is shown because either there is no example in the database or copyright restrictions prevent its use. If you have a photo of this coin that will help complete the catalog, please contact Chris Hopkins. You will be credited for your contribution if you desire, or may remain anonymous.
 

 

Second indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'A')

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left,  Rev/ Artemis standing (Alram, not listed)

[Prince 'A']Second indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'A') (c. A.D. 210?)
AE Drachm, 2.23 g, 13 mm, axis 2h
Obv/ diademed and cuirassed bust with forked beard left
Rev/ Artemis standing right with bow and arrow
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5919
- Mitchiner ACW 721


[Prince 'A']Second indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'A') (c. A.D. 210?)
AE Drachm, 1.52 g, 12 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed, bearded bust left.
Rev/ Artemis standing right with bow and arrow; more stylized than the coin above
Photo/ by permission Thomas K. Mallon, The Coins and History of Asia
- Sear GIC 5919
- Mitchiner ACW 721

JLpAk55_small.jpg (75x75 -- 1733 bytes)Second indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'A') (c. A.D. 210?)
AE Drachm
Elymais (Under Parthian Authority)
AE Drachm (12 mm)
Obv/ diademed, bearded bust left.
Rev/ Artemis standing right with bow and arrow.
Photo/ eBay Item #127947022 by permission Quadriga Ancients
 

Third indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'B')

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left,  Rev/ Athena standing (Alram, not listed)

No image availableNo image of this coin is shown because either there is no example in the database or copyright restrictions prevent its use. If you have a photo of this coin that will help complete the catalog, please contact Chris Hopkins. You will be credited for your contribution if you desire, or may remain anonymous.
 

 

Fourth indeterminate king (de Morgan Prince 'C')

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust left, Rev/ anchor (Alram xxx as yyy)

No image availableNo image of this coin is shown because either there is no example in the database or copyright restrictions prevent its use. If you have a photo of this coin that will help complete the catalog, please contact Chris Hopkins. You will be credited for your contribution if you desire, or may remain anonymous.
 

 

Fifth indeterminate king

Characteristics: Obv/ Bust facing,  Rev/ crescent (Alram, not listed)

PDC 18179Fifth indeterminate king (BMC Arabia Orodes III)
AE Drachm, 3.50 g
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ Diademed bust facing slightly left
Rev/ Anchor flanked by crescents with pellets; all within wreath
Photo/ by permission Classical Numismatic Group, CNG 63, lot 885
- Alram, not listed
- de Morgan, not listed
- cf. BMC Arabia, pg. 280, 1 (rev), 2 (obv); plate XLII, 1 & 2 (as Orodes III)

 

Osroes ?

Characteristics: bronze copies of  Artabanus IV's drachms (Alram, not listed)

No image availableNo image of this coin is shown because either there is no example in the database or copyright restrictions prevent its use. If you have a photo of this coin that will help complete the catalog, please contact Chris Hopkins. You will be credited for your contribution if you desire, or may remain anonymous.
 


References

The principle source for information on the coins of Elymais is Michael Alram (1986), Nomina Propria Iranica in Nummis, Materialgrundlagen zu den iranischen personennamen auf Antiken Münze. Also of use are Sear's Greek Coins and Greek Imperial Coins, de Morgan's Manuel de Numismatique Orientale, a large sale of Elymais coins in CNG 41 (March 1997) and an article in the August 1992 The Celator by Ed Dobbins, "Hoard Evidence Aids Attribution and Chronology of Arsacid Bronze Drachms of Elymais." Also: G. F. Hill, Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Persia, London, 1922 and C. Augé R. Curiel, and G. Le Rider, Terrasses sacrées de Bard-è Néchandeh et Masjid-i Soleiman. Les trouvailles monétaires. Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran. Tome XLIV. Paris, 1979. Also, Augé C., "Quelques monnaies d'Elymaïde," Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, November 1976; and Renaud, N., 1999, "Un nouveau souverain d'Elymaïde," Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, January 1999 pp. 1-5; Bell, Benjamin R., "New Inscription Alters Elymais Type Chronology", The Celator, v. 16, no. 4 (Apr 2002), pp. 38-39, 50 and Bell, Benjamin R., "A New Model for Elymaean Royal Chronology", The Celator, v. 16, no. 5 (May 2002), pp. 34-39, 50, 59.


This page last updated 21 Apr 2008

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