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Keall, Edward J. (continued)
"Qal'eh-i Yazdgerd. First season of excavations, 1975" (1976)
In: Proceedings of the 4th Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran 1975
Tehran: 1976, p. 380-390.
"Parthian High Life at Qal'eh Yazdigird" (1976)
Royal Ontario Museum, 1976, no. 138
"Political, economic, and social factors on the Parthian landscape of Mesopotamia and western Iran: Evidence from two case studies" (1977)
In: Levine, Louis D. & Young Jr., T. Cuyler (eds.), Mountains and Lowlands: Essays in the Archaeology of Greater Mesopotamia // Bibliotheca Mesopotamica Volume VII
Malibu, CA: Undena, 1977, p. 81-89.
"Qal'eh-i Yazdigird: The question of its date" (1977)
Iran, 1977, vol. 15, p. 1-9.
"Qal'eh-i Yazdigird: an overview of the monumental architecture" (1982)
Iran, 1982, vol. 20, p. 51-72.
Abstract: Discussion of the Parthian architecture at this site in Iran. Includes bibliographical references. Illustrations include dets., elevs., plans, site plans, photos., secns., maps, refs.
"Architecture, II. Parthian" (1986)
In: Encyclopædia Iranica
1986, p. 327-329.
"The Art of the Parthians" (1989)
In: Ferrier, Ronald W. (ed.), The Arts of Persia
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989, p. 48-59.
Abstract: Though published in 1989, the scholarship on numismatics is dated due to the absence of citations from any recent numismatic works since the now obsolete Sellwood, 1st ed. (1971). One excellent plate of Parthian tetradrachms from the ANS coin cabinet, p. 55.
"How Many kings did the Parthian King of Kings Rule?" (1995)
Iranica Antiqua, 1995, vol. 29, p. 253-272.
"Parthians" (1997)
In: Meyers, Eric M. (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Prepared under the Auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Volume IV
New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 249-250.
"Qal'eh-i Yazdigird -- Le plateau iranien" (2002)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy (ed.), Les Parthes: l'histoire d'un empire méconnu, rival de Rome
Dossiers d'Archeologie, 2002, no. 271 (Mar), p. 64-71.
Abstract: Le site de Qal'eh-i Yazdigird peut être défini comme un bassin fermé de quelque 25 km2 surplombant la ville de Sar Pul-i Zohab, à l'extrémité du Zagros, en Iran de l'Ouest. Les deux tiers du périmètre du bassin sont en élévation, ce qui donne à la forteresse de fantastiques capacités défensives. Une partie des fortifications naturelles est formée de falaises dans la zone haute, et, dans la zone basse, la franche dénivellation de l'escarpement qui entoure plus de la moitié du bassin constitue une formidable barrière pour ceux qui tentent d'approcher depuis le bas. Vue depuis la plaine de Zohab, en contrebas, la zone fortifiée apparaît comme un plateau élevé; vu depuis les hauteurs du Zagros qui le surplombent, le bassin se présente comme un prolongement de ce haut massif auquel il se rattache sur près d'un tiers de sa circonférence. [Publisher]
Keall, Edward J. & Ciuk, Krzysztof E.
"Continuity of tradition in the pottery from Parthian Nippur" (1991)
In: Schippmann, Klaus, Herling, Anja & Salles, Jean-François (eds.), Golf-Archäologie : Mesopotamien, Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate und Oman (Symposium Gottingen 1987). Internationale Archäologie, bd 6.
Buch am Erlbach: M.L. Leidorf, 1991, p. 57-70.
Keaveney, Arthur
"Roman Treaties with Parthia circa 95—circa 64 B.C." (1981)
American Journal of Philology, 1981, vol. 102, p. 195-212.
"The King and the War-lords: Romano-Parthian Relations circa 64—53 B.C." (1982)
American Journal of Philology, 1982, vol. 103, no. 4 (Winter), p. 412-428.
Keitel, Elizabeth
"The Role of Parthia and Armenia in Tacitus, Annals 11 & 12" (1978)
American Journal of Philology, 1978, vol. 99, p. 462-473.
Kennedy, David
"Parthians in the Roman army" (1977)
In: Fitz, J. (ed.), Limes. Akten des XI Internationalen Limeskongresses. Akadémiai Kiadó. Hungarian Academy of the Sciences
Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1977, p. 521-531.
Abstract: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies (30 Aug-6 Sep 1976, Székesfehérvár, Hungary)
"European" soldiers and the Severan Siege of Hatra (1986)
In: Freeman, P. W. M. & Kennedy, David (eds.), Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East: Proceedings of a Colloquium held at the University of Sheffield in April 1986, British Archaeological Reports S297, 2 vols., British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 8
Oxford: 1986, p. 397-409.
"Parthia and Rome, eastern perspectives" (1996)
In: Kennedy, David (ed.), The Roman Army in the East
Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1996, tome/ser. Supplementary, vol. 18, p. 67-90.
Abstract: See review: A.D. Lee, University of Wales in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 99.02.03
"The Roman army in the east" (1996)
In: Kennedy, David (ed.), The Roman Army in the East
Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1996, tome/ser. Supplementary, vol. 18, p. 9-24.
Abstract: See book review, BMCR 99.2.3, Kennedy, Roman Army in the East
The Wars of Rome and Parthia (In Press)
London: Routledge
Abstract: In publication, Routledge: Croom Helm
Kennedy, David & Riley, Derrick
Rome's desert frontier : from the air (1990)
London: Batsford, 1990, 256 p.
Rome's Desert Frontier (1990)
Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990
Abstract: Chapters 1 & 2 available on-line.
Kennedy, David (ed.)
The Roman Army in the East (1996)
In: Journal of Roman archaeology. Supplementary series ; no. 18
Ann Arbor: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1996, 320 p.
Abstract: Includes: "The Roman army in the east" / David Kennedy -- "Where are the frontiers now?" / C.R. Whittaker -- "River frontiers in the environmental psychology of the Roman world" / David Braund --
"Emperors, their borders and their neighbours" / David Potter -- "Parthia and Rome, eastern perspectives" / David Kennedy -- "The annexation of Arabia and imperial grand strategy" / Philip Freeman -- "Civic coins and imperial campaigns" / Ruprecht Ziegler -- "One hundred years of rebellion, the eastern army in politics, A.D. 175-272" / John Eadie -- "Eusebius and the geography of Roman provinces" / Benjamin Isaac -- "Was there an eastern origin for the design of late roman fortifications?" / Shelagh Gregory -- "The Roman army as 'total institution' in the Near East? : Dura-Europos as a case study" / Nigel Pollard -- "The laxity of Syrian legions" / Everett Wheeler -- "The commanders of Syrian legions (1st to 3rd c. A.D.)" / Edward Dabrowa -- "North African deserts and mountains" / Alan Rushworth.
Kennet, D.
"Kush: a Sasanian and Islamic-period archaeological tell in Ras al-Khaimah (U.A.E.)" (1997)
In: Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopædia Iranica
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 1997, vol. 8, p. 284-302.
Abstract: Kush is an archaeological tell in the Shimal area of Ras al-Khaimah. It contains an occupation sequence dating from around the first century AD through to the end of the 13th century AD.
Kerr, Sam
The Sassanian Dynasty (CE 224-641)
Kerr, William George
A Chronological Study of the Marcomannic Wars of Marcus Aurelius (1995)
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995, 295 p.
Abstract: Princeton University. The thesis is a reconsideration of several questions of chronology and interpretation concerning the Marcomannic wars of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is argued that, already before Verus' Parthian triumph in October 166, major Roman initiatives on the northern frontier were in train which indicate a planned offensive, not a defensive reaction. These plans were thwarted, partly by plague, but mainly by the abruptness of the attack whereby, in the summer of 167, the Marcomanni and Quadi pierced the limes and reached northern Italy. Dislocation in the coin supply, the effects on the careers of several Roman officials, and the creation of a special praetentura to guard the Alpine approaches to Italy in 168, supplement the meagre literary evidence to give a date of 167 for this invasion, rather than the commonly held 170. After a tour of the Danube lands in 168 and the death of Verus early in 169, Marcus made Carnuntum his headquarters for three years. A peace with the Quadi enabled him to focus a great Roman offensive on the Marcomanni in 170. This offensive was disastrously defeated; the praetentura held the Germans out of Italy, but the provinces were devastated, and the limes were breached at several other points. But by the end of 172 the Marcomanni had come to terms. Arguments purporting to date the 'weather miracles' to 172 or 173 are based on misinterpretations of evidence on the coins and the column of Marcus. In 173 the Iazyges were defeated in Pannonia, and again, in the winter of 173/174, in a battle fought on the frozen Danube. Beginning in 174, the evidence of the column comes into play; it helps date the 'rain miracle' against the Quadi to this year, followed shortly by the 'lightning miracle' against the Iazyges, with Marcus, now based at Sirmium, in attendance. By the opening of the campaign of 175, the Quadi and Marcomanni both had treaties; nothing here indicates an annexationist policy. As for the Iazyges, some sources mention extermination as a possible Roman objective, but not annexation. In any case, a successful offensive against the Iazyges was interrupted by news of Avidius Cassius' eastern rebellion. News of Cassius' assassination reached Marcus shortly after his peace with the Iazyges, but he contented himself with the exaction of large military levies from the Danubian tribes. By 177 the northern provinces were again insecure; Marcus sent tried commanders to the lower Danube. The attention of Marcus and Commodus was focused on the Marcomanni and Quadi when they left Rome in August 178. A hard-fought victory in 179 was followed by the physical occupation of the territory of the Marcomanni and Quadi; to judge by the column reliefs, the war was one of slaughter and intimidation, and annexation seems the inevitable aim. But any such plan lost impetus after the death of Marcus in March of 180. Even after a successful campaign, Commodus withdrew Roman forces south of the Danube; not even after his triumph did he affect GERMANICUS or SARMATICUS on his coinage. [Author]
Kessler, K.
"Eine arsakidenzeitliche Urkunde aus Warka (W 18568)" (1984)
Baghdader Mitteilungen, 1984, vol. 15, p. 273-281.
Kettenhofen, Erich
Tirdad und die Inschrift von Paikuli
"Die römisch-persischen Kriege des 3. Jahrh. n. Chr." (1982)
In: Beihefte zum Tubinger Atlas des Vorderen Oriente, Reihe B. Nr. 35
Wiesbaden: 1982
"Die Einforderung des Achämenidenerbes durch Ardašir: eine Interpretatio Romana" (1984)
In: Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 15
1984, p. 177-190.
"Die Arsakiden in den armenischen Quellen" (1996)
In: Wiesehöfer, Josef (ed.), Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse - The Arsacid Empire : Sources and Documentation. Beiträge des Internationalen Colloquiums, Eutin (27.-30. Juni 1996). Historia-Einzelschriften, 122
Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998, p. 325-353.
Kevorkian, Annie & Loudmer, Guy
Verres Antiques et de l'Islam. Ancienne collection de Monsieur D. Catalogue de la vente des 3 et 4 juin 1985 à Drouot (Loudmer) (1985)
Paris: Hôtel Drouot
Abstract: Dans ce catalogue sont reproduits des verres antiques, des verres égyptiens, puniques, mycéniens, achéménides, étrusques et de Méditerranée orientale, des verres hellénistiqus, des verres romaines, un important ensemble de verres gallo-romains et mérovingiens, des verres parthes et sassanides, des verres islamiques.
Kevran, M.
"Deux forteresses islamiques de la côte orientale de l'Arabie" (1983)
In: Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, vol. 13
p. 1-17.
Abstract: Preliminary report on the excavations of a pre-Islamic fortified palace on Bahrain. A plaster-lined silo containing exclusively Hellenistic/Parthian ceramics, was discovered in 1983, proving the building was in use during that period.
"Fouilles à Qal'at al-Bahrain" (1984)
In: Boucharlat, Rémy & Salles, Jean-François (eds.), Arabie orientale, Mésopotamie et Iran méridional : de l'âge du fer au début de la période islamique : réunion de travail, Lyon, 1982, Maison de l'Orient ; Mémoires 37
Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1984, p. 165-166.
Abstract: Preliminary report on the excavations of a pre-Islamic fortified palace on Bahrain. A plaster-lined silo containing exclusively Hellenistic/Parthian ceramics, was discovered in 1983, proving the building was in use during that period.
Kevran, M. et al.
Fouilles à Qal'at al-Bahrein: 1ére partie (1977-1979) (1982)
Abstract: Preliminary report on the excavations of a pre-Islamic fortified palace on Bahrain. A plaster-lined silo containing exclusively Hellenistic/Parthian ceramics, was discovered in 1983, proving the building was in use during that period.
Keyser, Paul T.
"The purpose of the Parthian galvanic cells : A first-century A.D. electric battery used for analgesia" (1993)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1993, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 81-98.
Abstract: The Parthian galvanic cells (electric batteries) have been known but never scientifically published. An examination of the find and some similar finds of Parthian galvanic cells is presented, and the device that might have been invented and what the electrolyte might have been are studied. Article Length: Long (31+ col inches). Includes references.
Khachatryan, Hayk
Queens of the Armenians (1998)
Yerevan: Amaras, 1998
Abstract: This book on the Queens of the Armenian royal court is a continuation of the author’s previous work, Royalty: 141 Armenian Kings. The queens of Armenia are defined as wives of sovereigns of Armenian state formations, and for that purpose nationality is not a decisive factor. Among the 150 queens described in this book, 103 are Armenian, one is Assyrian, eight are Parthian, six are Persian, two are Alan, nine are Greek, six are Roman, four are Georgian, ten are French, and one is Mongol.
Khakhutaishvili, D.
Uplistsiskhi. Rezul'taty arkheologicheskikh izykanil 1957-1963 gg. [Uplistsiskhi. Archaeoligical work from 1957 to 1963] (1964)
Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1964, 117 p.
Abstract: Russian summary. Two burials containing coins were excavated near Uplistsiskhi, a major city of ancient eastern Georgia. One revealed a Titus aureus, nine Augustus denarii, and two Gotarzes drachms. The other produced four Orodes I drachms. The Parthian coins are as in BMC Parthia.
Khlopin, Igor
"Die Reiseroute Isodors von Charax und die Oberen Satrapien Parthiens" (1977)
Iranica Antiqua, 1977, vol. 12, p. 117-165.
Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh
Arms and Armor from Iran : The Bronze Age to the end of the Qajar Period (in press)
Legat Verlag, 2006, 700 p.
Abstract: This book is the result of years of research in the field of Iranian arms and armor, illustrating for the first time a selected array of Iranian arms and armor from ten Iranian museums: the Military Museum Tehran, the Military Museum Shiraz, the Military Museum Bandar Anzali, the National Museum of Iran in Tehran, the Museum Reza Abbasi in Tehran, the Niavaran Palace in Tehran, the Melat Museum in Tehran, the Sabz Museum in Tehran, the Pars Museum in Shiraz, and the Naderi Museum in Mashad. [Publisher]

Has 900 black-and-white images; over 2,500 color images.
Khurshudian, Eduard
"A Coin of Mitridat, King of Tosp" (1998)
Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter, 1998, no. 157, p. 8 ff..
Abstract: Includes coin with diademed Parthian style head right within wreath / "Mithradates King of Tosp(?)." Khurshudian records four examples of similar coins, all with left facing heads. The coins were found in the vicinity of Armenia, all but one from archaeological excavations. This right-facing bust variety has the identical reverse legend, which as translated mentions a sub-king named Mithradates from the otherwise unknown district of Tosp.
Die parthischen und sasanidischen Verwaltungsinstitutionen nach den literarischen und epigraphischen Quellen, 3. Jh. v. Chr.-7. Jh. n. Chr. [The Parthian and Sassanian Administrative Institutions: On the literary and epigraphic sources] (1998)
Jerewan: Verlag des Kaukasischen Zentrums fur iranische Forschungen, 1998
Abstract: Russische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Orientalistik, Sankt Petersburger Filiale. Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften Armeniens, Institut fur Orientalistik. Alexander von humboldt Stiftung.
Kian, Gholam-Reza
Introduction à l'histoire de la monnaie et histoire monétaire de la Perse des origines à la fin de la période parthe (avec 10 figures) (1934)
Paris: P. Geuthner, 1934, 251 p.
Abstract: Published also without thesis note. Thesis, Paris, 1933.
Kingsley, Sean
"Iran’s Heritage Fever" (2005)
Minerva, 2005, no. Sep/Oct
Abstract: Photograph shows a four-handled bronze Parthian coffin excavated near the city of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province. The 180cm-long four-handled coffin resembles a bathtub, and was found to contain a unique skeleton with a gold blindfold covering its eye sockets and a gold gag over its mouth. Conservators are optimistic that an inscription may be concealed beneath sulphurous corrosion staining the coffin’s surface.
Kinns, Philip
"Myrina and Related Forgeries" (1985)
Museum Notes, 1985, vol. 30, p. 45-68.
Abstract: Several modern struck forgeries of 2nd century BC wreathed tetradrachms of Myrina are identified, ranging in date from the 17th to the 20th centuries. Some appear to have been produced by a workshop operating in Baghdad ca. 1900, which is also shown to have been responsible for a series of Seleucid, Parthian and other counterfeits. Among the 'Baghdad' forgeries which have previously been accepted as genuine are two varieties of tetradrachms of Tigranes the Great. (P. Z. Bedoukian, Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia, p. 49 no. 16 and p. 52 no. 27). [Author]
Kiyani, Muhammad Yusuf
"Prel. Report on the Survey on the Jorjan Plain" (1975)
In: Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 1974
Teheran: 1975, 147 p.
"Archaeological survey in Gorgan Plain: Pre-Islamic sites" (1976)
In: Akten des VII. Internationalen Kongresses für Iranische Kunst und Archäologie : München, 7.-10. September 1976. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran. Ergänzungsband 6
Berlin: D. Reimer, 1977, 246 p.
Abstract: Paper read at congress but not included in the Proceedings.
Parthian sites in Hyrcania : the Gurgan plain (1982)
Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1982, 78 p.
Abstract: See reviews: Klaus Schippmann, Gnomon. Kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft, Bd. 56 (1984), pp. 349-352; Leo Trumpelmann, Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie 74 (1984), pages 154-156.
Kleiss, Wolfram
"Zur Topographie des Partherhanges in Bisutun" (1970)
Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, 1970, tome/ser. New, vol. 3, p. 133-167.
Parthische Militärarchitektur in Iran (1988)
In: Akten des XIII. Internationalen Kongresses für Klassische Archäologie Berlin 1988. Mainz: von Zabern. (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut)
1990, p. 326-328.
Bibliography - Page 33

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