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Mitchell-Brown, H.
"Coins" (1989)
In: Ferrier, R. W., The Arts of Persia
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989, p. 195-199.
Abstract: A brief survey of Persian coinage. Twenty-four plates, only one of which is a Parthian drachm of Sinatruces, and 5 Sasanian, p. 195-196.
Mitchiner, Michael
"A small hoard containing coins of Arda-Mitra" (1969)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1969, tome/ser. 7, vol. 9, p. 301-304.
Abstract: Mitchiner discusses five or six Indo-Parthian coins (Pacorus, Gondophares II or Othagnes), part of a small Afghanistan find with three Arda-mitra, two Sasannid and one uncertain.
The Early Coinage of Central Asia (1973)
London: Hawkins Publications, 1973, 96 p.
Abstract: The coinage of the region between Central Asia and the Iran-Afghan plateau, which was successively rulled by Achaemenid Persian, Macedonian, Indo-Greek and Parthian rulers, is discussed and described. It covers the period from the 4th century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D. [P. L. Gupta] See review: R. Gobl, Schweizer Münzblätter vol. 27 no. 107 (Nov 1977), pp. 79-84).

No Parthian coins are illustrated.
Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage (1975)
In: 9 volumes
London: Hawkins Publications, 1975
Abstract: See review by Alvin A. Kleeb, Journal of the Society for Ancient Numismatics VII-3:47
--v. 1. The early Indo-Greeks and their antecedants, Alexander the Great, the satraps of Egypt, Babylon, Ecbatana, Bactra and Kapisa, the Seleucids, circa 330 to 150 BC.
--v. 2. The apogee of the Indo-Greeks, circa 160 to 120 BC.
--v. 3. The decline of the Indo-Greeks, circa 130 to 0 BC.
--v. 4. Contemporaries of the Indo-Greeks, Kings of Sogdiana, Scythians of Merv. Choresmia and Balkh, Yueh Chi and early Kushans, Indian states of Taxila-Gandhara and the Punjab, Audumbara, Kuninda etc., Indo-Greek mints, coin denominations and forgeries.
--v. 5. Establishment of the Scythians in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
--v. 6. The Dynasty of Azes.
--v. 7. The decline of the Indo-Scythians. Contemporaries of the Indo-Scythians.
--v. 8. The Indo-Parthians.
--v. 9. Greeks, Sakas and their contemporaries in central and southern India

This study commences at the time when Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and extended the Greek world as far as the Punjab. The traditional Persian practice of permitting provincial governors (Satraps) to issue their own coins has produced an interesting series of satrapal coins extending from Egypt and Babylon to the Kabul valley where Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes struck a few coins while satrap during the 320's BC. The more homogeneous coinage of the succeeding Seleucid Empire came to an end, so far as the Eastern provinces were concerned, when they declared their independence during the 250's BC. The Indo-Greek's rose to prominence as they re-conquered southern provinces whose ownership had passed from Alexander and Seleucos to the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya. The Golden Age of the Indo-Greeks ended abruptly during the 130's BC when nomads, migrating from the north, occupied large sections of Afghanistan. But it was not until the years around Christ's birth that the last Indo-Greek king forfeited what little remained of former glory to a pincer movement between the Kushans moving down from the north and Scythians expanding their holdings in Pakistan. The Scythians who had reached Afghanistan during the migration of the 130's BC settled much of the Afghan plateu during ensuing decades. Those who moved furthest organised themselves into a South-East Afghan kingdom ruled by Vonones and acquired a local heritage of Indo-Greek culture. Under new leaders these Indo-Scythians moved further and took much of northen Afghanistan away from the Indo-Greeks during the 1st century BC. Administritive de-centralisation, which had earlier been an asset to the Indo-Greeks, led to the downfall of the Indo-Scythian realm which, fragmented among increasingly powerful satraps, became easy prey to Kushan and Indo-Parthian expansion. Meanwhile, Scythians who had settled under Parthian suzerainty in western Afghanistan consolidated a principality in Seistan and entered a phase of rapid expansion that left their king, Gondophares, master of a vast Indo-Parthian empire in the mid 1st century AD. But northern Pakistan was soon lost when the Kushans entered a new phase of expansion and the more southerly districts of Saurashtra and Broach became the realm of the Western Satraps who commemorated their independence by founding the Saka era in AD 78. Reduced to a purely Afghan kingdom the Indo-Parthian realm split into the two kingdoms of Sakastan and Turan which were subsequently absorbed into the Sassanian Empire. [Spinks catalogue]
Greeks, Sakas and their contemporaries in Central and Southern India, Indo-Parthians, Western Satraps, Chutus, Abhiras, Satavahanas (1976)
In: Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage, vol 9
London: Hawkins Publications, 1976, 140 p.
Abstract: Central and West-Central India during the period of the Sungas & Indo-Greeks, the Western Satraps, Satavahanas, Andhrabhrityas, Ishvakus, Bodhis, etc. Metrology of Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coinage.
The Indo-Parthians: Their Kushan neighbours (1976)
In: Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage, vol 8
London: Hawkins Publications, 1976, xix+108 p.
Abstract: Cited in Koch's bibliography, A Hoard of Coins from Eastern Parthia
Establishment of the Scythians in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Parthians, the dynasties of Otannes and Vonones, the conquests of Maues, ca. 130 to 40 B.C. (1976)
In: Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage, vol 5
London: Hawkins Publications, 1976, 88 p.
Abstract: Parthian coinage of the Eastern provinces, Dahae of the East Caspian lowlands, Kingdom of Vonones, Scythian Kingdom in Pakistan. Parthian coins are covered from 248 BC to 45 AD on pages 414-429 as types 616-648. Includes illustrations of some of the Sellwood collection Parthian coins.

Some Scythians who had arrived in Afghanistan during the 130s B.C. settled in northern Afghanistan but others moved down the western Afghan plateau, across southern Afghanistan and down to the plains of Pakistan. During this period, they came into conflict with the Parthians and the Indo-Greeks. The Sakas who settled in western Afghanistan eventually reached an equilibrium with Parthia about 80 B.C. and issued a series of modified Parthian silver drachms during the rest of the first century B.C. Both Parthian-style drachms struck by these Sakas and drachms struck by the Parthians themselves in their eastern provinces are considered. Analysis of the Scythian advance then moves east to the plateau of southern Afghanistan, where the Sakas, displaced the Indo-Greeks. Vonones consolidated this eastern group of Sakas into a realm about 100 B.C. While the family of Vonones continued ruling Arachosia, an easter offshoot was created by the Maues in the plains of central Pakistan. During the course of his reign (ca. 90-57 B.C.), Maues made inroads into the Indo-Greek realm and eventually succeeded in establishing a new Scythian capital at Taxila. The volume ends with the Scythian establishment's extension from Herat, through Kandahar, to Taxila, and the creation of these various seperate states. [Author]
Oriental Coins and Their Values: The Ancient and Classical World, 600 B.C. - A.D. 650 (1978)
London: Hawkins Publications, 1978, 760 p.
Abstract: 5,527 coins described. A massive reference that covers the coinage eastwards from Parthia through China, with much historical information. Parthia is covered on pages 105-123, and 150 of the coins are illustrated. Unfortunately, his chronology and attribution follows Sellwood's Introduction..., 1971, first edition. It also covers Sasanian coins well on pages 135-196, with almost 500 coins illustrated. Historical introductions and, where possible, dynastic lists, are presented. Legends are usually rendered in their original script, with transliterations or translations where necessary. There are tables illustrating the various scripts. Appendices on weights and values and a bibliography are included. See reviews: K. M. Mackenzie, Numismatics International, vol. 13, no. 3 (March 1979), pp. 97-99; Seaby's Coin and Medal Bulletin No. 726 (Feb 1979), pp. 51-52; B. Kapossy, Schweizer Münzblätter (Gazette Numismatique Suisse) vol. 30, no. 117 (Feb 1980), p. 23; G. Hennequin, Revue Numismatique, Ser. 6, Vol. 21 (1979), pp. 242-243.
Ancient trade and early coinage (2004)
In: 2 vols.
London: Hawkins Publications, 2004
Mitsuma, Yasuyuki
"The Official Posts of Generals in Seleucid and Arshakid Babylonia" (2002)
Oriento (Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan), 2002, no. 45, p. 26-55.
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to clarify the functions of three types of generals who often appear in descriptions of historical events in the "Astronomical Diaries [A. J. Sachs/ H. Hunger [eds.], Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia, Vols.1-3, Wien, 1988-1996]" under Seleucid (305/4-141/0 B.C.) and early Arshakid (141/0-61/0 B.C.) rule: "the General (of Akkad)": LB lu2GAL u2-qu / u2-qa or lu2GAL ERIN2-ni / ERIN2mesh (kurURIki); "the General who is above the Four Generals": LB lu2GAL ERIN2mesh sha2 ana UGU 4 lu2GAL ERIN2mesh (with variants); and "the Chief of the Troops": LB lu2GAL.GAL u2-qa-a-nu / u2-qa-an. It is probable that each of these posts was occupied by only one person at any given time. The conclusions drawn in the paper may be summarised as follows: 1) The army commander in Seleucid and Ar?akid Babylonia was "the General (of Akkad)", at least until the first appearance of the title "the Chief of the Troops". The corresponding official title in Greek seems to be strategos. The post was below that of "the General above the Four Generals" which is probably to be equated with "the Satrap of the East"(probably corresponding, in turn, to the Gk. ho epi ton ano satrapeion) of the Seleucid kingdom. One variant of the title for the latter "the General of Akkad who is above the Four Governors", indicates that this official controlled a number of provinces, because the word "Governor (LB lu2mu-ma-?i-ir / lu2GAL UKKIN)" here no doubt corresponds to the Gk. satrapes, the "governor" of a province (e.g. Babylonia), whereby the "Four Generals / Governors" will be the "Generals / Governors" of the provinces in the Seleucid East. The variant "the General of Akkad who is above the Four Governors / Generals" probably shows that "the General above the Four Generals" sometimes doubled as "General (of Akkad)". 2) Under Arshakid rule, some Seleucid official posts ("General [of Akkad]", "General above the Four Generals", "Governor", etc.) were preserved, but the territory controlled by "the General above the Four Generals" was probably limited only to Babylonia. One variant of the title "(Who is) above the Four Generals of Akkad" appears in 141/0 and 133/2 B.C. (used on the latter occasion in the translation of royal correspondence!). We cannot, however, find any instances in the "Diaries" where there were more than two "generals" exercising their authority concurrently in Babylonia, so that "of Akkad" in the title seems to have been added only to indicate the location of the territory and the title most probably does not reflect the actual state of affairs. 3) Between 119/8 and 112/1 B.C., the post of "the Chief of the Troops" was established replacing that of "the Satrap of the East". The bearer of this office probably exercised both military and judicial power either over Babylonia or a number of provinces including Babylonia, since in 91/0 B.C. an official whose title (partly illegible on the tablet) can be reconstructed as "the Chief of the Troops" levied an army from "the other side of the Tigris" (probably meaning "the other side from Seleucia", i.e. Ctesiphon) and went to Kar-Assur, while the existence of judges subordinate to "the Chief of the Troops" is attested to in a record from 83/2 B.C. [Author]
Mittag, Peter Franz
"Beim Barte des Demetrios. Überlegungen zur parthischen Gefangenschaft Demetrios' II" (2002)
Klio, 2002, vol. 84, no. 2, p. 373-399.
Abstract: In chap. VI (pp. 389-398) the bearded coin portraits of the Seleucid king Demetius II (second reign) are interpreted: According to Mittag, the bearded king is not imitating Parthian hair-style but is taking over the beard of a senior Greek god - presumably Zeus (cf. English summary, p. 399). [Hans R. Baldus]
Mkrtychev, T. & Treiner, U.
"The Manufacturing Technique of the Rhytons from Old Nisa" (2000)
Parthica, 2000, vol. 2, p. 55-68.
Mode, Markus (ed.)
"Strong Forces of the East. Military developments in the Parthian and Sasanian periods and the impact of Eurasian nomadic war techniques. A guide through the literature compiled by Markus Mode" (2001)
Abstract: Bibliographischer Survey zur Militärgeschichte der parthischen und sasanidischen Welt
Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji
"The cities of Iran as described in the Old Pahlavi treaties of Shatroiha-i Airan" (1905)
In: Asiatic Papers, I
1905, p. 147-182.
"An Iranian Prince of the Parthian Dynasty as The First Promulgator of Buddhism in China" (1937)
In: Jha Commemoration Volume
1937, p. 249-258.
"The cities of Iran as described in the Old Pahlavi treaties of Shatroiha-i Airan" (1937-1946)
Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1937, tome/ser. Orig series?, vol. 20, p. 156-190.
Modrze, Anneliese
"Monaises (1): M. war ein vornehmer Parther, der im J. 37 v. Chr. mit andern Parthern vor dem König Phraates, der aus dem Haus der Arsakiden stammte, flüchten mußte" (1933)
In: RE. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. (Einunddreissigster Halbband)
1933, p. 43-44.
"Monaises (2) (1933)
In: RE. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. (Einunddreissigster Halbband)
1933, 44 p.
Moghaddam, Abbas & Miri, Negin
"Archaeological Research in the Mianab Plain of Lowland Susiana, South-Western Iran" (2003)
Iran, 2003, p. 99-137.
Abstract: Premiers résultats d’un survey organisé par l’Organisation du patrimoine culturel au sud de Shushtar, dans une zone que menace la réactivation d’un ancien canal d’irrigation dans cette région de grande agriculture. L’évolution du peuplement n’est pas entièrement semblable à celle de la plaine de Susiane voisine : ainsi, les époques néo-élamite et achéménide ne semblent pas marquer ici par un déclin mais au contraire par une augmentation du peuplement. En revanche, comme ailleurs dans le Khuzistan, les époques parthe, sassanide et islamique ancienne correspondent à une très forte occupation, en grande partie liée au développement du système d’irrigation par canaux de surface. [Rémy Boucharlat, Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 26. http://abstractairanica.revues.org/document3000.html]
Mohebbi, Hamid Reza
"The Statue of Hercules in Bistoon" (1997)
Zaman, 1997, vol. Oct & Nov, no. 18, p. 30-31.
Mollo, P.
"Le sigillature di Nisa Vecchia" [in Italian, "The sealings of Old Nisa"] (2001)
Parthica, 2001, vol. 3, p. 159-210.
Abstract: In Italian, but has a two-page abstract in English.
"The Sealings From Old Nisa" (in press)
Parthica, 2002, vol. 3
Momigliano, Arnaldo D.
"Corbulone e la politica romana verso i Parti" (1975)
In: Quinto contributo alla storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico, tomo I
Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1975, p. 649-656.
Mommsen, Theodor
The provinces of the Roman Empire, from Caesar to Diocletian ; translated with the author's sanction and additions by William P. Dickson (1909)
In: 2 volumes
Chicago: Ares, 1974
Abstract: See Vol II, Chapt. IX, "The Euphrates Frontier and the Parthians", pp. 1-115. This is a translation of v. 5 of the Mommsen's Römische Geschichte; William P. Dickson's translation revised by F. Haverfield. Reprint of the revised 1909 ed. originally published by Macmillan, London.
Mongait, A. L.
Archaeology in the U.S.S.R. (1961)
London: 1961
Monneret De Villard, Ugo
"The Iranian Temple of Taxila" (1938)
In: Pope, Arthur Upham & Ackerman, Phyllis (eds.), A Survey of Persian art from prehistoric times to the present (1981 Centennial edition), vol 1
New York: Maxwell Aley Literary Associates, 1981, 3 ed., p. 445-448.
Montagu, John Drogo
Battles of the Greek and Roman worlds : a chronological compendium of 667 battles to 31 B.C., from the historians of the ancient world (2000)
London: Greenhill Books, 2000
Montaigne, Michel de
"Of the Parthians Armes" (16th Cent)
In: Florio, John (tr.), The essayes of Michael lord of Montaigne, done into English by John Florio, with an introduction by Thomas Seccombe, Volume 2, Essay IX
London: G. Richards, 1908, p. 89-91.
Abstract: Michel de Montaigne lived 1533-1592; John Florio lived 1553?-1625.
Montfaucon, Bernard de
L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures / Par Dom Bernard de Montfaucon (1719)
In: 5 v. in 10. front.
Paris: F. Delaulne, 1719
Abstract: In French and Latin. Volumes numbered I-X on cover
--t.1. ptie. 1-2. Les dieux des Grecs & des Romains: 1. ptie. Les dieux du premier, du second & du troisième rang, selon l'ordre du tems. 2. ptie. Les heros parvenus à la divinité.
--t. 2. ptie. 1. Le culte des Grecs et des Romains.
--t. 1. ptie. 2. La religion des Égyptiens, des Arabes, des Syriens, des Perses, des Scythes, des Germains, des Gaulois, des Espagnols, & des Carthaginois.
--t. 3. ptie. 1-2. Les usages de la vie: 1. ptie. Les habits, les meubles, les vases, les monoyes, les poids, les mesures, des Grecs, des Romains, & des autres nations. 2. ptie. Les bains, les mariages, les grands & les petits jeux, les pompes, la chasse, la peche, les arts, &c.
--t. 4. ptie. 1-2. La guerre, les voitures, les grands chemins, les ponts, les aqueducs, la navigation: 1. ptie. Les levees des gens de guerre, les habits, les magazins, les travaux, les signes & les combats militaires, les armes de toutes les nations, les marches d'armees, les machines de guerre, etc. 2. ptie. Les chemins publics, les aqueducs, & la navigation.
--t. 5. ptie. 1-2. Les funerailles, les lampes, les supplices &c: 1. ptie. Les funerailles des Grecs & des Romains. 2. ptie. Les funerailles des nations barbares, les lampes, les supplices, etc
Montfaucon, Bernard de & Humphreys, David (tr.)
Antiquity explained, and represented in sculptures. By the learned Father Montfaucon. Translated into English by David Humphreys (1721-1722)
In: 5 v.
Paris: F. Delaulne, 1722
Moore, Wayne
"The Divine Couple of Demetrius II, Nicator, and His Coinage at Nisibis" (1986)
Museum Notes, 1986, vol. 31, p. 125-143.
Abstract: A cohesive series of bronzes and tetradrachms with a lightly bearded portrait of Demetrius II suggests an important provincial mint operating at Nisibis during that king's Parthian campaign, ca. 140-139 BC. [Author]
Moorey, P. R. S.
"Parthian and Sasanian Metalwork in the Bomford Collection" (1976)
The Burlington Magazine, 1976, vol. 118, no. June, p. 358.
Moorey, P.R.S.
Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum (1971)
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971, 343 p.
Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Adam Collection (1974)
London: Faber & Faber, 1974, 188 p.
Abstract: Includes 188 illustrations throughout text, 4 color plates, 12 drawings, 2 maps.
Moortgat, A.
"Hellas und die Kunst der Achaemeniden" (1926)
Mitteilungen der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft, 1926, vol. 2, no. 1
Morano, E.
"Contributi all'interpretazione della bilingue greco-partica dell'Eracle di Seleucia" (1987)
In: Proceedings of the first conference of Iranian studies held in Turin, September 7-11th, 1987
Roma: 1990, p. 229-238.
Morano, Enrico
"My kingdom is not of this world: revisiting the great Parthian crucifixion hymn" (1995)
In: Sims-Williams, Nicholas (ed.), Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian studies held in Cambridge, September 11-15th, 1995, Part 1, Old and Middle Iranian Studies
Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1995, p. 131-145.
"Manichaean Middle Iranian Incantation Texts from Turfan 221" (2004)
In: Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond; Raschmann, Simone-Christiane; Wilkens, Jens; Yaldiz, Marianne & Zieme, Peter (eds.), Turfan Revisited - The First Century of Research into the Arts and Cultures of the Silk Road; in Monographien zur Indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie - Band 17
Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 2004, p. 221-227.
Mordtmann, A. D.
"Hekatompylos" (1869)
Sitzungsberichte der bayer. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1869, p. 512-516.
"Uber eine bisher unbekannte varietät arsakidischer Munzen (mit Tafel)" (1876)
Zeitschrift für Numismatik, 1876, p. 223-234.
"Persepolitanische muenzen" (1877)
Zeitschrift für Numismatik, 1877, p. 152-186.
"Weitere beiträge zur kenntniss der persepolitan münzen" (1880)
Zeitschrift für Numismatik, 1880, p. 40-53.
Morehart, M.
"Early Sculpture at Palmyra" (1956-7)
Berytus, 1956, vol. 12, p. 53ff.
Morello, Antonio (ed.)
Titus Labienus et Cingulum. Quintus Labienus Parthicus (2005)
In: Nummus et Historia IX
Ottimoi studio, 2005, 92 p.
Abstract: Raccolta di notizie su Tito Labineo. Includes
- Quintus Labienus Imperator Parthicus.
- Medaglia emessa in memoria di Q. Labienus

Studi storici su Titus Labieno, tribuno della plebe e legato di Cesare in Gallia. Usciti nei primi del secolo in lingua inglese in pubblicazioni diverse, essi sono stati qui raccolti e tradotti da Antonio Morello. Egli stesso fa una relazione sulla figura del La-bieno, sui suoi rapporti con la probabile sua città natale, la antica Cingulum (Cin-goli), nel Piceno, sulle medaglie emesse nel corso dei secoli per celebrare il personaggio. Quindi tratta di Quinto Labieno (figlio di Titus), generale romano alleato dei Parti e nemico dei cesariani, che fu proclamato imperatore dai suoi uomini e batté moneta per finanziare le sue campagne. Interessante questo ultimo studio numismatico. [Publisher]
Morgan, Jacques de
"Etude sur la decadence de l'écriture greque dans l'empire Perse sous les Arsacides" (1912)
Revue Archéologique, 1912, tome/ser. 4, vol. 20, p. 1-31.
Abstract: De Morgan studied the smallest details of the evolution of Greek writing in Persia, and used it as the basis for establishing probable orders of succession.
"Observations sur la monnayage des premiéres arsacides des Perse" (1912)
Revue Numismatique, 1912, tome/ser. 4, vol. 16, p. 169-192.
"Légendes des monnaies Characéniennes" (1920)
Numismatic Chronicle, 1920, vol. 20, p. 122-138.
Manuel de numismatique orientale de l'antiquité et du moyen-âge, vol. 1 (1923)
Chicago: Obol International, 1979, x+480 p.
Abstract: A general survey with good line illustrations of Ancient coinages, from early Persian through India & Central Asia. Something like Marsden, but with ruler lists, transcribed legends, design element closeups, etc. G. F. Hill says (in his article on Persian coins in A Survey of Persian Art) that J. de Morgan's Manuel de Numismatique Orientale is "unfortunately very inaccurate." Pages 125-171 cover the Parthian coins. Pages 289-331 list the Sasanian coins. Clain-Stefinelli also lists a 1971 Chicago reprint.
Numismatique de la Perse Antique (1927-33)
In: Babelon, Ernest, Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines, Part III "Monnaies orientales," Tome 1
Paris: E. Léroux, 1927, 738 p.
Abstract: Part III of Babelon's Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines contains de Morgan's work on ancient Persian numismatics. The text was issued in three fascicules, "Introduction - Arsacides" (1927, 337 pp.), "Perside - Elymaide - Characene" (1930, 198 pp.), and "Dynastie Sassanide" (1933, 190 pp.). There is one set of plates to accompany all three text fascicules, "Planches" (1933), with 78 plates (I-LXXVIII); of these, 26 plates are Parthian (590 coins), 8 plates are Persis (203 coins), 5 plates are Elymais (126 coins), 4 plates are Characene (55 coins), and there are 35 plates of Sasanian coins.
Bibliography - Page 42

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