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Roux, Georges
Ancient Iraq (1992)
New York: Penguin Books, 1992, 3 ed., 547 p.
Abstract: See Chapter 25 Death of a Civilization, pp. 418-422
The Achaemenian Period
The Hellenistic Period
The Parthian Period
Rowland, B.
"Hellenistic Sculpture in Iran" (1955)
Art Quarterly, 1955, vol. 18, p. 171-179.
Rtveladze, E. V.
Drevnie monety Srednei Azii [Ancient coins of Central Asia] (1987)
Tashkent: Izd-vo lit-ry i iskusstva im. Gafura Guliama, 1987, 183 p.
Abstract: Introduction in Uzbek, Russian and English. Titles on added t.p.: Urta Osiëning kadimgi tangalari. The ancient coins of Central Asia. Nine Parthian coins illustrated but two have only the obverse.
O zone parfyanskih vladenij v Zapadnoj Baktrii. Staryj Merv v drevnej i srednevekovoj istorii [About the area of Parthian possesions in western Bactria. The Old Merve in the ancient times and Middle Ages] (1992)
Ashhabad: 1992
"Kampir-Tepe: Structures, Written Documents, and Coins" (1994)
Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 1994, tome/ser. New, vol. 8, p. 141-154.
Abstract: On page 150 lists the coin finds at Kampir-tepe. Included are 4 of Orodes II (80-70 BC); 1 of Phraates IV (40-3 BC); 1 of Phraates V (3 BC - AD 3); and 1 of Gotarzes II (AD 43-50). Also found were Parthian coins with countermarks: 1 of Phraates IV (head of ruler facing left) and 3 of Phraates V (head of ruler facing right) [Attributions are Rtveladze's, not consistent with Sellwood]
"Parthia and Bactria" (1995)
In: Invernizzi, Antonio (ed.), In the Land of the Gryphons: Papers on Central Asian Archaeology in Antiquity; Monografie di Mesopotamia vol 5
Florence: Casa Editrice Le Lettere, 1995, p. 181-190.
Abstract: The history of Parthian-bactrian relations over almost five hundered years in light of source material and numismatic data from Bactria. [C. A. Bromberg]
Monety na Velikom shelkovom puti [The coins on the Great Silk Road] (1998)
Numizmatika Tsentral’noi Azii, 1998, vol. 3
Abstract: The author defines the three main periods in the monetary circulation of 'Western Turkestan' by summarizing the data on local coinage and on the finds of Chinese, Parthian, Roman and Byzantine coins. [Aleksandr Naymark]
"Parfija i Juechzhijskaja Baktrija (nekotorye aspekty politicheskoj istorii)" (2000)
IMKU, 2000, vol. 31, p. 86-90.
Abstract: "Le nombre de monnaies parthes (en cuivre et en argent), trouvés le long de l'Amu Darya, à Termez, Khodzha Gul'suar et surtout Kampyr Tepe semble indiquer une conquête parthe de ce secteur vers le début du Ier siècle av. n. è. et qui aurait continué jusqu'au milieu du Ier siècle de n. è. (les dernières monnaies sont de Gotarzes II qui règne entre 41 et 53 de n. è.)". Cited by S. Stride, "Géogrphie Archélogique de la Province de Surkhan Darya" (Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Paris I, 2004): 2004:321.
"Monetary circulation in ancient Tokharistan" (2004)
In: Symposium: After Alexander: Central Asia Before Islam. Themes in the history and Archaeology of Western Central Asia
The British Academy, London, 23-25 June 2004
Abstract: The toponym Tokharistan first appears in the Chinese text - Vibhasa – sastra.
However, Tokharistan appeared in Bactria (the north of Afganistan, Southern Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan) five centuries earlier, according to Strabo. The Tokharians, together with the Assianis, Passianis and Sakaravlis, took part in the destruction of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the beginning of the second half of the 2nd century B.C. Ptolemy (2nd century AD) distinguishes a big Tokharian tribe in Bactria, emphasizing the predominant role of the Tokharians among the other tribes of Bactria. Thus, we can suppose that the toponym Tokharistan appears considerably earlier than the 4th century AD.

This paper discusses the period from the second half of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. We can distinguish three periods of money circulation in ancient Tokharistan:

The Post-Hellenistic period – the second half of the 2nd century BC to the mid-1st century AD – the time of the Kushan conquest of Bactria during the reign of Peroz.
The Kushan period– the mid-1st century to the second half of the 3rd century AD.
The Post-Kushan or Kushano-Sasanian period - the second half of the 3rd century to the end of the 4th century AD.
1. The Post-Hellenistic period. The absence of a common coinage in the region and the variety of coins struck by Yuechi (Tokharian) rulers in different areas of Bactria-Tokharistan is typical. In such a way, the imitations of drachms and tetradrachms of Helioclus, which had two types with Zeus and a horse on the reverse site, circulated in N and NW Bactria. Later, the territory of circulation of these coins included all of Bactria. Probably, it was the coinage of the supreme rulers of the Great Yuechis, the imitations of obols of Eucratides, that circulated in NE Bactria.

Western Bactria, the Bactra-Balkh region, was the area where silver and bronze coins of the Sapadbizes Dynasty circulated. The imitations of Parthian coins of Fraat 4 and the same coins with the mintages of the rulers of Sapadbizes Dynasty also circulated. In the Amu Darya valley, almost up to Termez, bronze and silver Parthian coins from Orodes II reign (57-39 BC) to the time of the Kushan conquest of Bactria circulated.

The results of the excavations of Kampyr-tepe suggest that the Parthians conquered the Amu Darya valley at the time of Orodes II and that they controlled an important trade route from India to the West. Furthermore Kampyr-tepe was the Parthian outpost in the East.

The tetradrachms and obols of Kushan ("Heraus") and his successors circulated in NE Bactria, a zone adjacent to the Amu Darya, and, probably, in the SE part of this region. Silver coins of Tanlismaidates, the Fseigaharis ruler circulated in one region of S Bactria and Parthia.

The second period is characterized by the circulation of gold and bronze coins of a common coinage of Kushan rulers in the territory of Bactria – Tokharistan, beginning from the reign of Soter Megas (Vima Tokto) to Kanishka III inclusive. The finds of Kushan coins in Bactria – Tokharistan are numerous. For instance, in Kampyr-tepe, which is comparatively small, more than 500 Kushan coins, of Soter Megas, Kadphises II and Kanishka, have been found. At the same time, in sites and settlements of N and W Bactria there is absence of Kudjula Kadphises's coins, although finds are numerous in Taksila. This fact suggests that Bactria – Tokharistan did not belong to the Kushans in the days of Kadphises's II.

The third period divides into two. From the time of the rule of Shapur I (241-262 A.D) imitation coins of Vasudeva I and Kanishka III circulated. These are well illustrated, thanks to the hoard from Dalverzin tepe, which consisted of imitations of Kushan coins and drachms of Shapur I.

The circulation of imitations and gold and bronze Kushano-Sasanian, Sasanian-Kushan coins of all Kushan-Shahs is typical of the second stage of this period. The coin finds of both types are numerous. The hoard from Alibaytepa in the Surkhandarya valley is particularly significant and includes more than 1000 coins (imitations of Kushan coins of Vasudeva I, Kanisha III and Sasanian – Kushan coins of differrent types). [Author]
Rtveladze, E. V. (ed.)
Materialy Toxaristanskoj Ekspedicii, III, Arxeologičeskie issledovanija Kampyrtepa [Matériaux de l’expédition du Tokharestan, III, Fouilles de Kampyrtepe] (2002)
Tashkent: San'at, 2002, 120 p.
Abstract: Publishes 1 Parthian (?) inscription.

See abstract: Étienne de La Vaissière, Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 25, mis en ligne le : 15 mars 2006. URL http://abstractairanica.revues.org/document4216.html]
Rubin, Zeev
"Dio, Herodian and Severus' Second Parthian war" (1975)
Chiron, 1975, vol. 5, p. 419-441.
Russell, J.
"The scepter of Tiridates" (2001)
Le Muséon, 2001, vol. 114, no. fasc. 1-2, p. 187-215.
Russell, J. R.
Zoroastrianism in Armenia (1983)
In: Series Harvard Iranian studies ; v. 5
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983, vi+578 p.
"Religion in Iran in the Parthian Period" (1990)
In: [Hinweis auf den Nachtrag in Bd.II. 18.6] II.18.4
Aufstieg und Nidergang der römischen Welt, 1990, vol. 18.4 supplement, p. 2727.
"Religion in Iran in the Sasanian Period" (1990)
In: [Hinweis auf den Nachtrag in Bd.II. 18.6] II.18.4
Aufstieg und Nidergang der römischen Welt, 1990, vol. 18.4 supplement, p. 2727.
Philosophers, Mystics, and, Poets; or The Near East in the Mind of Armenia (2002)
Abstract: Presented as one of three lectures at the National Association for Armenian Studies and Research (NAASR) in Belmont, Massachusetts, under the co-sponsorship of NAASR, the Armenian Cultural Foundation, Arlington, Mass.; and the Mashtots Chair in Armenian Studies at Harvard University.
Armenian and Iranian Studies (2004)
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, xxix+1462 p.
Abstract: Armenian and Iranian Studies is a 1,400+ page omnibus of ninety-one of Harvard University's Mashtots Professor of Armenian Studies James R. Russell’s articles spanning the years 1980 to 2003, including both previously published and unpublished pieces. Some deal exclusively with either Armeniaca (ancient, medieval, and modern) or Iranica (pre-Islamic). In the case of the former, Russell has been most interested in the sources and religious material of heroic epic and of folklore – material ancillary to the "official" Christian clerical culture – as well as the visionaries of the Armenian tradition such as Mashtots, Narekatsi, and Charents. In the Iranian area, there are studies of Irano-Judaica and the culture of the Parsi Zoroastrians of India.

However, the bulk of the articles deal not with Armenia or Iran per se, but rather Armeno-Iranica, the intersection of the two ancient civilizations. In some cases, they supplement the author’s Zoroastrianism in Armenia, which argued that the pre-Christian religion of the majority of Armenians was, despite local features, the Zoroastrian faith of the Parthian Arsacids. Other articles are concerned with witchcraft and magic, heretical beliefs condemned by the Armenian Church, Armenian lyric poetry, and above all else, Armenian heroic epic, especially the Sasun epic, popularly known as David of Sasun. [Publisher]
Ruthven, Malise
Freya Stark in Persia (1994)
In: Series: St. Anthony's College Middle East Archives
Reading, UK: Garnet Publishers, 1994, 118 p.
Abstract: Freya Stark was one of the great explorers and when she died in 1993 aged 100 she left behind a collection of 50,000 negatives taken on her travels. Her godson Malise Ruthven has selected over 100 pictures recording her visits to Persia, now Iran, starting with her first trip in 1930. This collection starts in 1930s Alamut, with the grainy quality of the pictures doing nothing to diminish the grandeur of the mountains or the quiet dignity of pilgrims on their donkeys in Upper Sardabrud. The descent from Nevisar Shah comes over as terrifyingly vertiginous even with the limitations of Stark's photographic equipment. Kurdish men in Rudbarek and women from the Chalus Valley are smiling. The 1959 expedition to Tabriz and beyond is astonishing for its architecture, from the Seljuk tomb at Maragha and the Blue Mosque to the monumental Parthian arch at Phraaspa and the Sphinx gate at Persepolis. Over 100 b/w photos. [Publisher]
Rypka, Jan et al.
History of Iranian Literature (1968)
Dordrecht: D. Reidel , 1968, xxvii+929 p.
Abstract: English translation of Dejiny jerské A tadzické literatury. Written in collaboration with Otakar Klima, Vera Kubickova, Felix Tauer, Jiri Becka, Jiri Cejpek, Jan Marek, I. Hrbek and J.T.P. De Bruijn. Edited by Karl Jahn (University of Leyden). A huge compendium which includes, to mention only the early periods, ancient Eastern-Iranian culture - the first states - Zarathushtra - Avesta - the culture of the ancient Medes and Persians - beginnings of Iranian philology - minor texts - the middle Persian era - Alexander the Great - the Parthians - the earliest records of Middle Iranian literature - coins of the Pre-Sasanian Period - middle Persian book literature, and much more through modern literary traditions.
Sachau, Eduard
Vom Christentum in der Persis (1916)
In: Sitzungsberichte der koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften ; 39
Abstract: Cover title: "Sitzung der philosophisch-historischen Klasse vom 27. Juli."
Sachs, A. J.
"Babylonian Observational Astronomy" (1972)
In: Hodson, F. R. (ed.), The Place of astronomy in the ancient world : a joint symposium of the Royal Society and the British Academy / organized by D. G. Kendall ... [et al.]
London: Oxford University Press, 1974
Abstract: Papers presented December 7-8, 1972. The late Professor Sachs presented an article which includes a photograph of Cuneiform tablet CBS17, currently residing at the University of Pennsylvania museum. This text is extremely important to Parthian chronology.
Sachs, A. J. & Hunger, Hermann
Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylonia [1988, 1989, 1996] (1988-1996)
In: Series: Denkschriften (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse) ; 195.- Bd
Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie, 1988
Abstract: Abraham J. Sachs' text completed and edited by Hermann Hunger.
Three volumes, 1988, 1989, 1996:
--v.1. Diaries from 652 B.C. to 262 B.C.
--v.2. Diaries from 261 B.C. to 165 B.C.
--v.3. Diaries from 164 B.C. to 61 B.C.
Sachs, A. J. & Wisemann, D. J.
"A Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period" (1954)
Iraq, 1954, vol. 16, p. 202-211.
Abstract: A list prepared using astronomical observation diaries.
Safar, Fuad
Parthian Stations (in Arabic) (1946)
Sumer, 1946, vol. 2, no. 2 (July)
[Inscriptions of Hatra] (1951-1954)
Sumer, vol. VIII-X
"Hatra and the first Season of Excavations" (1952)
Sumer, 1952, vol. VIII
Safar, Fuad & Mustafa, Mohammed Ali
The City of the Sun God (al-Hadr, mad¯inat al-shams; in Arabic) (1974)
Bagdad: 1974, 460 p.
Sage, Elizabeth
A study of costume, from the days of the Egyptians to modern times (1926)
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926, xvii+235 p.
Sainte-Croix, M. de
Mémoire sur le gouvernement des Parthes (1808)
In: Mémoires de Littérature, Tirés des Registres de l’académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Depuis l’année M.DCCLXXXIV, jusques et compris l’année M.DCCXCIII
Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1808, p. 48-78.
Mémoire sur l’étendue de l’Empire des Parthes, ou Remarques sur les Stathmes Parthiques d’Isidore de Charax (1808)
In: Mémoires de Littérature, Tirés des Registres de l’académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Depuis l’année M.DCCLXXXIV, jusques et compris l’année M.DCCXCIII
Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1808, p. 79-108.
Saint-Martin, Antoine Jean
Mémoires historiques et géographiques sur l'Arménie (1818-1819)
In: 2 volumes
Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1819
Abstract: Full title: Mémoires historiques et géographiques sur l'Arménie, suivis du texte arménien de l'Histoire des princes Orpélians, par Étienne Orpélian, archevêque de Siounie, et de celui des géographies attribuées à Moyse de Khoren et au docteur Vartan, avec plusieurs autres pièces relatives à l'histoire d'Arménie; le tout accompagné d'une traduction françoise et de notes explicatives, par M.J. Saint-Martin
Recherches sur l'histoire et la géographie de la Mésène et de la Characène (1838)
Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1838
Abstract: Full title: Recherches sur l'histoire et la géographie de la Mésène et de la Characène; ouvrage posthume pub. sous les auspices du Ministère de l'instruction publique
Saint-Martin, Antoine Jean (ed.)
Fragments d'une histoire des Arsacides, ouvrage posthume de M.J. Saint-Martin, publie sous les auspices du Ministere de l'instruction publique (1850)
In: 2 volumes
Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1850
Abstract: Posthumous. Unfortunately relies on varied and unreliable Armenian historians.
Sale Catalogs
Sale Catalog -- Sotheby's James Robertson Sale, 1842
London: Sotheby & Co., 1842
Abstract: Mr. Robertson, a civil engineer, formed a small collection of coins while residing in Persia, in the service of the Shah. [W. Wroth, BMC Parthia] Coins purchased from this sale for their collection by BM are annotated.
Sale Catalog -- Catalogue of the Bunbury Collection of Greek Coins, second and final portion. 7-12 Dec 1896
London: Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 1896
Abstract: One coin of Parthia: lot 645 (no plate), tetradrachm of "Phraates IV (B.C. 37)" and othe misc coins in lot of eleven coins.
Sale Catalog -- The Montagu Collection of Coins : Catalogue of the Greek Series, 23-28 Mar 1896
London: Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 1896
Abstract: Two coins of Parthia: lots 765 and 766, both tetradrachms of "Mithradates I (B.C. 174-136)"; Sasanidae, lot 757; Persis, lot 768; excellent plates but not of these coins.
Sale Catalog -- The Montagu Collection of Coins : Catalogue of the Greek Series, second and final portion. 15-19 Mar 1897
London: Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 1897
Abstract: One coin of Parthia: lot 400 (with plate), tetradrachm of "Mithradates I (B.C. 174-136)"
Sale Catalog -- J. Schulman auction of collection de L. White King, esq., 6 Septembre 1904
Amsterdam: J. Schulman, 1904
Abstract: Première partie: Monnaies des rois grecs et scythes de bactriane et india, scytho-sassanides, kushans, séleucides, ptolomées, achéménides, arsacides, sassanides, ephthalites, judaea.
Sale Catalog -- J. Schulman auction of von Karabaczej, E. E. Oliver, J. A Bourdillion, 18 Nov 1907
Amsterdam: J. Schulman, 1907, 123 p.
Abstract: 2,093 lots of coins from Greece, Parthia, Persia, Islamic countries, etc. Copy priced in Newell Library, ANS.
Sale Catalog -- Ars Classica I: Sammlung. S. Pozzi, 4 April 1921
Geneva: Naville et Cie, 1921
Abstract: Lot 3103 later seen in Lanz 102, lot 313 (May 2001).
Sale Catalog -- Ars Classica X: Monnaies grecques et romaines : importante collection générale grecque, série des Séleucides la plus complète du monde, réunion remarquable d'aes grave, superbes médaillons romains, etc., etc. 15-18 June 1925
Lucerne: Naville et Cie, 1925, 127 p.
Abstract: Monnaies grecques et romaines : importante collection générale grecque, série des Séleucides la plus complète du monde, réunion remarquable d'aes grave, superbes médaillons romains, etc., etc. : collections d'un grand industriel décédé, de feu le baron Alexandre de Petrowicz, de M. le Rev. Edgar Rogers, M.A., et de plusieurs autres amateurs : catalogue / illustré de 76 planches et 2 pl. de monogrammes
Sale Catalog -- Florange & Ciani, Monnaies grecques provenant des collections de Colonel Allotte de la Fuÿe, 1re vente, 17-21 Feb 1925
Paris: Florange & Ciani, 1925
Abstract: Allotte de la Fuÿe, François Maurice
Sale Catalog -- Ars Classica XII: Catalogue de Monnaies Grecques et Romaines Composant les Collections de feu E. Bisson, de Jules Wertheim, de Sir John Evans, de la Serie Parthe de feu Alexandre de Petrowicz. 18-23 October 1926
Lucerne: Naville et Cie, 1926, 207 p.
Abstract: Greek & Roman Coins (Bissen, Wertheim, Sir Arthur Evans, Baron Petrowicz, etc) plus numismatic literature. Includes 3,172 auction lots described on 207 pages (including a comprehensive index), all illustrated on 88 fine collotype plates with a further plate of monograms. This includes the majority of the Petrowicz collection of Parthian coins.
Sale Catalog -- Ernst Herzfeld and A. Orlowski Collections, Grunthal & Gans mail bid sale No. 3, 25 March 1947
New York: Grunthal & Gans, 1947
Abstract: Auction of 1296 lots. Ernst Herzfeld and A. Orlowski Colls. Contents: Parthian, Polish Gold, Jewish, Siege and Necessity and Jefimki. Catalogue especially rich in the Parthian series (lots 1-240 but only 8 illustrated); and the Jefimki (lots 626-722). Prof Herzfeld's notes on Parthian coinage are printed on pp. 7-10.
Sale Catalog -- Hess-Divo Antique Münzen (from the collection of J. Hirsch), 1957
Abstract: Not seen, but K. W. Dobbins (1975) uses Parthia lot 306 to illustrate article.
Sale Catalog -- Catalogue of a valuable collection of coins, chiefly of Alexander the Great, his successors in North-West India, and of the Seleucid kings of Syria, formed by the late Major-General H. L. Haughton. 30 Apr - 1 May 1958
London: Sotheby & Co., 1958, 96 p.
Abstract: Mentioned in a note to IGCH 1813 where disposition of the hoard included lots 196, 216 and 226. Also included items from the Mohmand Border hoard (IGCH 1859) which contained 20 Orodes II pieces.
Sale Catalog -- Münzen und Medaillen A.G. Auction Catalog XIX, 1959
Basel: Münzen und Medaillen A.G., 1959
Abstract: Not seen, but K. W. Dobbins (1975) this catalog as source.
Sale Catalog -- Glendining & Co. Catalogue of Part XII of the celebrated collection of coins formed by the late Richard Cyril Lockett, Esq. Greek (Part IV - Final), 21-23 Feb 1961
London: Glendining & Co., 1961
Abstract: Parthian lots 2690-2735; Persis 2736-2738; Bactria 2739-2764.
Sale Catalog -- Hess/Bank Leu 12-13 April 1962
Abstract: Persis, lots 373-374; Parthia, lots 375-376; Characene, lot 377.
Bibliography - Page 52

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