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Chronological Listing of Parthian Rulers


In main, the chronologies of Frye [The History of Ancient Iran (1984), pp. 209ff, 360] and Sellwood [An Introduction to the Coinage of Parthia, 1980, 2nd ed.] are followed with some modification. Specific changes include revisions to the early kings following Koshelenko's theory of descent based on information found in the Parthian ostraca of Nisa. [Koshelenko (1976), "Genealogia Pervykh Arshakidov", p. 34]. Koshelenko reconciles Justin (Trogus) with Arrian, based on archaeological evidence. Olson's study of Greek letterforms (1973) and additional numismatic evidence have been considered. The revised father-son relationship between Mithradates IV and Vologases IV is established by the inscription on the bronze Herakles [W. I. al-Salihi, Sumer 43 (1984), p. 219, and J. Black, ibid., p. 230]. Tiridates III was added at the end of the genealogy following Sellwood's clarification of a numismatic inscription in "The End of the Parthian Dynasty" (1990).

Also see the rulers index for alternate names and usages, and the genealogy chart of Parthian rulers. For a comparison of coin attributions by the principal numismatists, see the attribution correlation chart. For a list of names attested in ancient inscriptions or texts, see the attested names of Parthian rulers page.

Click on links to view additional information:

Reign Principal Line
of Succession
Joint Rulers Rival Claimants
(c. 247 - 211 B.C.) Arsaces I    
(c. 211 - 191 B.C.) Arsaces II    
(c. 191 - 176 B.C.) Phriapatius    
(c. 176 - 171 B.C.) Phraates I    
(c. 171 - 138 B.C.) Mithradates I    
(c. 138 - 127 B.C.) Phraates II    
(c. 127-125 B.C.) Interregnum    
(c. 127 - 124 B.C.) Artabanus I    
(c. 123 - 88 B.C.) Mithradates II    
(c. 95 - 90 B.C.)     Gotarzes I
(c. 90 - 80 B.C.) Orodes I    
(c. 80 B.C.)     Unknown King (I)
(c. 80 - 70 B.C.) Unknown King (II)    
(c. 77 - 70 B.C.)     Sinatruces
(c. 70 - 57 B.C.) Phraates III    
(c. 70 B.C.)     Darius of Media Atropatene
(c. 57 - 54 B.C.) Mithradates III    
(c. 57 - 38 B.C.) Orodes II    
(c. 39 B.C.)   Pacorus I  
(c. 38 - 2 B.C.) Phraates IV    
(c. 29 - 26 B.C.)     Tiridates I
  Queen Musa    
(c. 2 B.C. - A.D. 4) Phraataces    
(c. A.D. 6) Orodes III    
(c. A.D. 8 - 12) Vonones I    
(c. A.D. 10 - 38) Artabanus II    
(c. A.D. 35 - 36)     Tiridates II
(c. A.D. 40 - 47) Vardanes I    
(c. A.D. 40 - 51) Gotarzes II    
(c. A.D. 50 - 65)     Sanabares
(c. A.D. 51) Vonones II    
(c. A.D. 51 - 78) Vologases I    
(c. A.D. 55 - 58)     Vardanes II
(c. A.D. 77 - 80) Vologases II    
(c. A.D. 78 - 105) Pacorus II    
(c. A.D. 80 - 90)     Artabanus III
(c. A.D. 105 - 147) Vologases III    
(c. A.D. 109 - 129)   Osroes I  
(c. A.D. 116)     Parthamaspates
(c. A.D. 129 - 140)     Mithradates IV
(c. A.D. 140)     Unknown King (III)
(c. A.D. 147 - 191) Vologases IV    
(c. A.D. 190)     Osroes II
(c. A.D. 191 - 208) Vologases V    
(c. A.D. 208 - 228) Vologases VI    
(c. A.D. 216 - 224)   Artabanus IV  
(c. A.D. 224 - 228?)     Tiridates III

 


This page last updated 22 Apr 2008

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