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Bibliography Page 45

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Nikonorov, Valerii P. (continued)
"The Development of Horse Defensive Equipment in the Antique Epoch" [in Russian] (1985)
In: Kruglikova, I. T. (ed.), Zheleznyi vek Kavkaza, Srednei Azii i Sibiri : Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii Akademii nauk SSSR. No. 184.
Moscow: Nauka, 1985, p. 30-35.
"About One Rare Type of Armour for the Cataphracts (An Attempt of Comparative
Iconography)" [in Russian] (1985)
In: Tvorcheskoe nasledie narodov Srednei Azii v
pamiatnikakh iskusstva, arkhitektury i arkheologii.
Tashkent: 1985, p. 87-89.
"Parthian Sites of Mesopotamia and Iran" [in Russian] (1985)
In: Arkheologiia zarubezhnoi Azii : materialy k simpoziumu Soveta molodykh uchenykh LOIA
Leningrad: 1985, p. 50-55.
"The Parthian Cataphracts" [in Russian] (1986)
In: Chetvertaia vsesoiuznaia shkola molodykh vostokovedov. T. I.
Moscow: 1986, p. 65-67.
Vooruzhenie i voennoe delo v Parfii (Armament and Warfare in Parthia) [in Russian] (1987)
Leningrad: 1987
Abstract: Discussion of Parthia heavy armoured cavalry.

Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata istoricheskikh nauk, Leningrad
"On the Role of Nomadic Components in Warfare of the Post-Hellenistic East (On the Pattern of Parthia)" [in Russian] (1987)
In: Vzaimodeistvie kochevykh kul'tur i drevnikh tsivilizatsii
Alma-Ata: 1987, p. 106-107.
"Antique Elements in the Warfare of the Parthian State" [in Russian] (1988)
In: Tretii vsesoiuznyi simpozium po problemam ellinisticheskoi kul.tury na Vostoke
Yerevan: 1988, p. 59-60.
"On the Nature of the Warfare of the Parthians" [in Russian] (1989)
In: Koshelenko, Gennadij A. (ed.), Problemy issledovanii antichnykh gorodov
Moscow: 1989, p. 88-89.
"Margiana and Merv as described in Classical Historiography" [in Russian] (1990)
In: Merv v drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii Vistoka [I]
Ashkhabad: 1990, p. 39-42.
"To the History of One Iconographical Topic in Parthian and Early Sasanian Official Art" [in Russian] (1990)
In: Borbad i khudozhestvennye traditsii narodov Tsentral.noi i Perednei Azii: istoriia i sovremennost.
Dushanbe: 1990, p. 170-172.
"The Battle of Carrhae and the Parthian Tactics (On the Steppe Elements in the Warfare of the Parthians)" [in Russian] (1991)
In: Merv v drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii Vostoka II: kul'turnye vzaimodeistviia i sviazi
Ashkhabad: 1991, p. 25-26.
"Bitva pri Karrakh i parfyanskaya taktika (k voprosu o stepnykh elementakh v voennom dele Parfyan)" (1991)
In: Merv v drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii Vostoka, II. Kul'turnye vzaimodeistviya i svyazi, Tezisy dokladov nauchnoi konferentsii
Ashkhabad: 1991, p. 25-26.
Abstract: Discussion of Parthia heavy armoured cavalry.
"On the Structure of the Warriors. Order in the Parthian State" [in Russian] (1992)
In: Merv v drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii Vostoka III: Merv i parfianskaia epokha.
Ashgabat: 1992, p. 18-20.
"Equestrian Combats on the Rock-Reliefs of the Parthians and the Sasanians" (review of: Gall H. von. Das Reiterkampfbild in der iranischen und iranisch beeinflussten Kunst parthischer und sasanidischer Zeit. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1990) [in Russian] (19
Arkheologicheskie vesti, 1992, no. 1, p. 214-217.
"The Central Asian Cataphracts as a Product of the Interaction between the Military Schools of the West and the East at the Early Hellenistic Epoch" [in Russian] (1994)
In: Vzaimodeistvie drevnikh kul'tur i tsivilizatsii i ritmy kul'turogeneza.
St. Petersburg: 1994, p. 47-51.
"K voprosu o parfjanskoj taktike (na primere bitvy pri Karrach)" (1995)
In: Voennoe delo i srednevekovaja archeologija Central'noj Azii
Kemerovo: 1995, p. 53-61.
"On the Parthian Tactics (on an Example of the Battle at Carrhae)" [in Russian] (1995)
In: Voennoe delo i srednevekovaia arkheologiia Tsentral.noi Azii.
Kemerovo: 1995, p. 53-61.
"Apollodorus of Artemita and the date of his Parthica revisited" (1996)
In: Dabrowa, Edward (ed.), Ancient Iran and the mediterranean world. Proceedings of an international conference in honour of Professor Józef Wolski held at the Jagiellonian university, Cracow, in September 1996 (Electrum. Studies in Ancient History. 2.)
Kraków: 1998, p. 107-122.
The Use of Musical Percussions in Ancient Eastern Warfare: Parthian and Central Asian Evidence (1998)
In: Hickmann, Ellen, Laufs, Ingo & Eichmann, R., Music archaeology of Early Metal Ages : papers from the 1st Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology at Monastery Michaelstein, 18-24 May, 1998 (Blankenburg, Germany); Orient-ArchŠologie, 7; Studien zur MusikarchŠologie II
Rahden/Westf: Verlag Marie Leidorfe, 2000, p. 71-82.
Abstract: Full title: Musikarchäologie früher Metallzeiten : Vorträge des 1. Symposiums der International Study Group on Music Archaeology im Kloster Michaelstein, 18.-24. Mai 1998 = Music archaeology of early metal ages : papers from the 1st Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology at Monastery Michaelstein, 18-24 May, 1998

Online title is "The Use of Music in Ancient Warfare: Parthian and Central Asian Warfare"

The use of music on battle-fields always had for such objects as to give the signal, to inspirit one's own soldiery and to frighten foes. The Parthians, according to the classical authors (Plutarch, Crassus 23.9; 26.4; Justin XLI. 2.8; cf. Herodian IV. 11,3), employed in the war not horns or trumpets but kettle-drums (tympana). The tympanon, when being struck with sticks, uttered first toneless sounds turning then into those like both the beastly howl and peals of thunder, which were heard for a distance of several kilometres, inspiring great fear on the enemy (as this was, for the most striking instance, at the famous battle of Carrhae in 53 BC).This is so impressive, one membraned instrument must have been brought to Iran by the nomadic founders of the Parthian Arsacid empire from their steppe homeland, and the Medieval Middle Asian kettle-drums called nagora probably originated from it. A battle drum (tumbag) is referred to in a Sasanian-date Pahlavi, but Parthian-age by origin, text Ayyatkar i Zareran (§26). Gurgani's in c. poem Vis u Ramin, composed in 1050 AD and going back most likely to a Parthian model again, speaks of battle drums as well. A dominant role of the percussion instruments in the battle music of the Parthians may be explained by some peculiarities of their warfare. For Middle Asia (or western Central Asia) proper, there is a unique find of a ceramic giblet-shaped, one membraned drum (tablak) which has been recently discovered at Tali Khamtuda (Northern Sogdia), in a warrior's (?) burial dated to the 3rd or 4th century AD. Drum-type instruments are depicted on monuments of art, belonging to Late Antiquity and early Medieval times, from Airtam (Northern Bactria), Toprak-kala (Khorezm), Afrasiab, Penjikent, Khirman-tepe (Sogdia). All of (two-membraned) and "sand-glass"-shaped drums; however, those of different shapes and kettle-drums are also met. At least, some of these instruments could be quite employed for the accompaniment to military actions. In addition to the pictorial evidences, the use of drums in Early Medieval Middle Asia, including on battle fields, is reported by the Arabic and Chinese sources. [Author, St. Petersburg, Russia]
"Cataphracti, Catafractarii and Clibanarii: Another Look at the old problem of their Identifications" (1998)
In: Voennaia arkheologiia: Oruzhie i voennoe delo v istoricheskoi i sotsial.noi perspektive / Military Archaeology: Weaponry and Warfare in the
Historical and Social Perspective
St. Petersburg: 1998, p. 131-138.
"On the Source of Plutarch's Information concerning the Iron of Margiana" [in Russian] (1999)
In: The Study of the Cultural Heritage of the East. Cultural Traditions and Continuity in the Development of Ancient Cultures and Civilizations
St. Petersburg: 1999, p. 88-92.
"A Nomadic Layer in the Cultural Heritage of the Parthian Realm" [in Russian, with an English summary] (2000)
In: Kul'turnoe nasledie Turkmenistana (glubinnye istoki i sovremennye perspektivy). Ashgabat
St. Petersburg: 2000, p. 31-35.
"Parthian Kettledrums" [in Russian] (2000)
In: SYSSITIA: Pamiati Yuriia Viktorovicha Andreeva.
St. Petersburg: 2000, p. 167-174.
"Parthian Saddles" [in Russian and English] (2001)
In: The Role of Ahalteke Horse in the Formation of World Horse-Breeding. Materials for the international scientific conference
Ashgabat: 2001, p. 115-116.
Nikonorov, Valerii P. & Goroncharovskii, V. A.
"A Graffito from Iluraton with the Representation of a Cataphract" [in Russian] (1986)
In: Chetvertaia vsesoiuznaia shkola molodykh vostokovedov. T. I.
Moscow: 1986, p. 184-185.
"A Cataphract from Iluraton (To the History of the Antique Heavy-armed Cavalry)" [in Russian, with a French summary] (1987)
Vestnik Drevnei Istorii, 1987, no. 1, p. 201-213.
Nikonorov, Valerii P. et al (eds.)
Central Asia from the Achaemenids to the Timurids. Archaeology, History, Ethnology, Culture. Material of the International Scientific Conference dedicated to the Centenary of Aleksandr Markovich Belenitsky (2005)
St. Petersburg: Hermitage, 2005
Nissen, H. J.
"Südbabylonien in parthischer und sassanidischer Zeit" (1969)
In: Suppl. I 3
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1969, p. 1036ff.
Nodelman, S. A.
"A Preliminary History of Characene" (1960)
Berytus, 1960, vol. 13, p. 83-121.
Nofi, Albert A.
"Centurion Tactical Game 13 : Tactical Warfare, 100 BC to 600 AD" (1971)
Strategy and Tactics, 1971, no. 25 (Jan/Feb)
Abstract: Published by Simulations Publications, Inc.Game designed by Albert A. Nofi, with assistance from R.A. Simonsen and S. Patrick.

This tactical level game covers the battles fought by the Roman legions at the height of their effectiveness. Seventeen scenarios of the most decisive battles of this period are presented, including
- Carrhae (53 BC) – Romans vs. Parthians
- Ctesiphon (363 AD) – Romans vs. Persians
- Daras (530 AD) – Romans vs. Persians
Northedge, Alastair
"'Ana in the classical and Islamic sources" (1983)
Sumer, 1983, vol. 39, p. 235-39.
Northedge, Alastair; Bamber, Andrina & Roaf, Michael
Excavations at 'Ana (1998)
Aris & Phillips, 1998, 192 p.
Abstract: This was a rescue project in the basin of the Qadisiyya Dam recently completed at Haditha. Qal'at 'Ana is an island in the stream of the Euphrates, the site of the ancient and medieval city of 'Ana, since the 17th century downgraded to a village and palm-gardens, while the town moved to the right bank. 'Ana, on the Middle Euphrates some 150 km below the modern Iraqi-Syrian border, a very beautiful place, was the centre of an autonomous governorate under the Assyrians, a border fortress under the Parthians, Romans and Sasanians, and a caravan town and bedouin centre under Islam. [Publisher]
Novák, Mirko, Oettel, Andreas & Witzel, Carsten
Der parthisch-römische Friedhof von Tall S¯eh Hamad/Magdala (2000)
In: Series: Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall S¯eh Hamad/D¯ur-katlimmu (BATSH) ; Bd. 5
Berlin: D. Reimer, 2000
Abstract: Summaries in Arabic and English. See review in Italian by C. Lippolis in Parthica 4 (2002), pp. 171-172.
Novikov, S. V.
Iugo-Zapadnyi Iran v antichnoe vremia (1989)
Moskva: 1989
Abstract: See review: Olbrycht, M. J., Folia Orientalia 27 (1990), 275-277 (in English)
Noy, David
"The Jews of Roman Syria: The Synagogues of Dura-Europos and Apamea" (2007)
In: Aspects of the Roman East : Papers in Honour of Professor Fergus Millar FBA [Studia Antiqua Australiensia (SAA 3)]
Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2007
Noy, David & Bloedhorn, Hanswulf (eds.)
Inscriptiones Judaicae Orientis. Volume III: Syria and Cyprus (2004)
Abstract: Volume III of the Inscriptiones collects all known Jewish inscriptions from the Graeco-Roman period (up to c. 700 CE), in all languages (Greek, Latin, Aramaic, Hebrew, Palmyrene, Middle Persian, Parthian) in Syria and Cyprus. It provides the texts of the inscriptions with English translations together with full bibliographies, discussions and indexes. It covers the regions Phoenicia, Southern Syria, Northern Syria and Osrhoene, Dura-Europos, and Cyprus. It includes appendices on Jewish inscriptions in Palmyrene, Jewish inscriptions not related to Syria and inscriptions not considered Jewish, as well as a bibliography, a concordance with CIJ and Roth-Gerson (2001), indexes and a map.
Nyberg, H. S.
"The Pahlavi Documents from Avroman" (1923)
Le monde oriental, 1923, vol. XVII, p. 182-230.
Abstract: Document in Aramaic characters dated 300 / 53-4 A.D.
Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi (1928)
Uppsala: 1928
"Hajjiabad-Inskriften" (1945)
In: Christensen, A., Øst og Vest....
Copenhagen: 1945, p. 62-74.
A manual of Pahlavi (1964-1974)
In: 2 volumes
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1964
Abstract: Unif title Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi. English & Pahlavi
-- pt. 1. texts, alphabets, index, paradigms, notes and an introduction
-- pt. 2. Ideograms, glossary, abbreviations, index, grammatical survey, corrigenda to part 1

[Reprinted 2003 Tehran: Asatir]
Frahang i Pahlav¯ik / edited with transliteration, transcription, and commentary from the posthumous papers of Henrik Samuel Nyberg by Bo Utas ; with the collaboration of Christopher Toll (1988)
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988
Oates, David
"Excavations at Nimrud.... preliminary reports" (in Iraq, vols. 18-21, 23-25 1955-1959, 1961-1963) (1955-1963)
Iraq, 1956, vol. 18-21, 23-25
Abstract: See especially vol 21 (1959), pp. 228-237 and pl. LV, which contains a photograph and more detailed catalog of items than the Appendex B catalog in D. Oates, Studies in the Ancient History of Northern Iraq (London: Oxford UP, 1968).
"Parthian and Roman Pottery from Ain Sinu-Zagurae" (1968)
In: Oates, David, Studies in the ancient history of northern Iraq, Appendix B
London: Oxford University Press, 1968, p. 145-160.
Abstract: There are four figures and one plate of Parthian artifacts.
"East against west: 1. Rome and Parthia" (1968)
In: Oates, David, Studies in the ancient history of northern Iraq
London: Oxford University Press, 1968, p. 67-92.
Abstract: EL No ISBN: Series of studies on specific problems. Strong archaeological orientation; treats geography, major cities, and Roman, Parthian, Byzantine, and Sasanian periods in Assyria.
Oates, David & Oates, Joan
"Nimrud 1957: The Hellenistic Settlement" (1958)
Iraq, 1958, vol. 20, p. 114-157.
Oberleitner, Wolfgang
"Zwei unbekannte Fragmente des PARTHER monumentes" (1996)
In: Festschrift für Jürgen Borchhardt zum 60. Geburtstag am 25 Februar 1996, Bd. l
Wien: 1996, p. 371 ff.
Oddy, W. A. & Meeks, N. D.
"A Parthian Bowl: Study of the Gilding Technique" (1978)
MASCA Journal, 1978, vol. 1, p. 5-6.
Oeconomides, Mando Caramessini
Syllogåe I. Basileiou [Coins in the J. Vassiliou collection] (1973)
In: Archaiologikon Deltion t. 29 (1973), p. [71]-96, 9 p. of plates
Archaiologikon Deltion, 1973, vol. 29, p. 71-96.
Abstract: English summary. The Collections of J. Vassiliou which includes Parthian coins.
Oelsner, Joachim
"Randbemerkungen zur arsakidischen Geschichte anhand von babylonischen Keilschrifttexten" (1975)
Altorientalische Forschungen, 1975, vol. 29, no. 12, p. 25-45.
Bibliography - Page 45

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