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Letterform Usage


This page provides descriptions of the letterform and where it was used. Click on the letterform's name in the first column to visit a page which shows the letters used in inscriptions on actual coins of the Historia Numorum project. Names in all capital letters are the official Unicode names.

Letterform Usage
Version 1.1.5, 10 Aug 2004

Adobe
Glyph Name
Letter Usage on ancient Coins
Alpha gr_alpha.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA. This form first appears at Agrigentum and Catana about 480-460 B.C. (Hill, 208)
Alpha.02 alpha-vee.gif (32x32 -- 932 bytes) broken-barAlpha or bent-elbow Alpha, this form is common from the closing years of the third century till Nero's time; after that it is rare except on the coins of Bosporus. An anticipation is found at Agyrium (Sicily) in the fourth century. Becomesgr_alpha.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)in the first century A.D. (Hill, 208)
Alpha.03 alpha-angle.gif (32x32 -- 934 bytes) This form disappears as a rule early in the fifth century BC; but in Athens it was retained, in accordance with the archaizing tendency of the coinage, until about 430 B.C. (Hill, 208)
Alpha.04 alpha-leg.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes) The same glyph appears as the retrograde formalpha-leg-retro.gif (32x32 -- 934 bytes)on coins of Stiela or Styella (HN, p. 171; Icard, p. 506), and on the coins of Axus in Crete (HN, p. 359; Icard, p. 162)
Alpha.05 alpha-noleg.gif (32x32 -- 918 bytes)  
Alpha.06 gr_alpha.06.gif (32x32 -- 934 bytes)  
Alpha.07 alpha-leanto_left.gif (32x32 -- 923 bytes)  
Alpha.08 alpha-leanto_right.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes)  
Alpha.09 gr_delta.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes)  
Alpha.10 gr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Alpha.11 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Beta gr_beta.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA. Comes in perhaps as early as 100 B.C. and is common in Asia Minor under the Empire.  (Hill, 209)
Beta.02 beta-points.gif (32x32 -- 923 bytes) is common until late in the fifth century, but is confined to the Greek mainland. In some Sicilian cities it occurs occasionally at the end of the third century. (Hill, 209)
Beta.03 beta-S.gif (32x32 -- 928 bytes)  
Beta.04 beta_Jgamma.gif (32x32 -- 899 bytes)  
Beta.05 beta_Vgamma.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Beta.06 beta-halfM.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes)  
Beta.07 C-half.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) lunate Beta is found on coins of Thraco-Macedonian Bisaltae dating about 500-480 B.C. This lunate form is probably due to the influence of the Thasian alphabet. (Hill, 209)
Beta.08 gr_box-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)  
Beta.09 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Beta.10 gamma-angle.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) found on coins of Thraco-Macedonian Bisaltae dating about 500-480 B.C. (Hill, 209)
Beta.11 Beta11.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes) is peculiar to Byzantium, whence it disappears between 277 and 270 B.C. (Hill, 209)
Gamma gr_gamma.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA. As a rule, this form had superseded all the older forms by the close of the fifth century.(Hill, 209)
Gamma.02 gamma-angle.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) transitional form used at Gela and Segesta, in the middle of the fifth century. (Hill, 209)
Gamma.03 gr_gamma_dot-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 898 bytes)  
Gamma.04 rom_L.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) inverted Gamma form used at Selge in Psidia (HN, 711)
Gamma.05 gamma_droop.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) this early from was used at Segesta.  (Hill, 209)
Gamma.06 lambda-halfleg.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes)  
Gamma.07 C-half.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) lunate Gamma is found until about 440 in Sicily, but lasts as late as the forth century at Agae in Achaea. (Hill, 209)
Gamma.08 gr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) a common form lasting sometimes (as at Gomphi in Thessaly and Gortyna in Crete) down to the end of the fourth century.(Hill, 209)
Delta gr_delta.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA
Delta.02 delta-rightpoint.gif (32x32 -- 922 bytes) this early form is found at Zancle down to 490, and later at Selinus.(Hill, 209)
Delta.03 D-latin.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) an early form found at Zancle (Messana1), in Arcadia and elsewhere.(Hill, 209)
Delta.04 gr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Epsilon gr_epsilon.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON
Epsilon.02 E-tongue.gif (32x32 -- 918 bytes) GREEK LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL. Found occasionally before the close of the third century in Sicily, and before 100 B.C. at Apollonia and Dyrrhachium in Illyria. Under the Empire, from about the middle of the first century A.D., it becomes the commonest form. (Hill, 210). An example in HN, p. 672.
Epsilon.02.retro E-tongue-retro.gif (32x32 -- 918 bytes) GREEK REVERSED LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL
Epsilon.03 rom_L.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes)  
Epsilon.04 half-H.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes)  
Epsilon.05 Epsilon05.gif (32x32 -- 934 bytes) Anticipating our modern cursive e, this form was used on coins of Rhoemetalces king of Bosporus, A.D. 132-154. (Hill, 210 and pl. XIII, 3)
Epsilon.06 epsilon_angle.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)  
Epsilon.07 epsilon_angletail.gif (32x32 -- 922 bytes)  
Epsilon.08 epsilon_twotail.gif (32x32 -- 892 bytes) Early form seldom seen later than about 480 B.C. (Hill, 209)
Epsilon.09 epsilon_rotate.gif (32x32 -- 918 bytes)  
Epsilon.10 epsilon_rotateback.gif (31x32 -- 931 bytes)  
Epsilon.11 gr_sigma_sq-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes)  
Epsilon.12 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Epsilon.13 Epsilon13.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) this dotted form occurs in the first century A.D. (Hill, 210)
Epsilon.14 Epsilon14.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes) c. 550-490 BC in Arcadin : Heraea (HN, p. 447); c. 511(?)-490 BC in Euboea : Erertia (HN, p. 361); c. 450 BC in Illyricum : Epodamnus-Dyrrhachium (HN, p. 406); Icard, p. 126
Epsilon.15 Epsilon15.gif (32x32 -- 901 bytes) HN, p. 672
Epsilon.16 Epsilon16.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes) Used in Cilicia at Olbia as part of abbreviation to indicate a date (HN, p. 727)
Stigma gr_stigma-uni.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) GREEK LETTER STIGMA. Only used as a numeral (= 6) and appears in a great variety of shapes.  (Hill, 215)
Stigma.02 gr_stigma-square.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes)  
Stigma.03 Stigma03.gif (32x32 -- 936 bytes) See Vardanes II usage in Parthia. Also a bronze coin from Apamea dated sqStigma-K-T.gif (42x15 -- 973 bytes) = 326 S.E. = A.D. 14/15 (G. Macdonald, Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, 1905, p. 194, no. 30 and plate LXXIII, 24)
Stigma.04 gr_sigma_sq-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes) form used in imperial times (Hill, 215)
Digamma gr_digamma.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes) GREEK LETTER DIGAMMA. This form is kept up as an archaism at Elis, and not discarded until imperial times. At Axus in Crete it lasts to the end of the fourth century. (Hill, 215)
Digamma.02 digamma_square_rot.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)  
Digamma.03 digamma_square.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) This form is found in Crete, as late as the third century B.C. (Hill, 215)
Digamma.04 digamma_F_droop.gif (32x32 -- 923 bytes)  
Digamma.05 digamma_L.gif (32x32 -- 934 bytes) The retrograde formdigamma_L_retro.gif (32x32 -- 936 bytes)is used on coins of Axus in Crete (HN, p. 459; Icard, p. 162)
Digamma.06 Nu09.gif (32x32 -- 907 bytes) a rare form found in the fourth century B.C. at the Cretan Axus (compare the Pamphylian form at Perga in the second or first century B.C.) (Hill, 215)
Digamma.07 gr_nu.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Digamma.08 Digamma08.gif (32x32 -- 947 bytes) This form used in Pamphylia at Perga (HN, p. 702; Icard, p. 400) and Sillyum (HN, p. 705; Icard, p. 452; Lanckoronski-Niemann-Petersen, Les Villes de la Pamphylie, i., pp. 70 ff.)
Digamma.09 digamma09.gif (32x32 -- 935 bytes) Icard, p. 162
Zeta gr_zeta.gif (32x32 -- 906 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA. This form comes in with the first century B.C., but is not common until Roman times. This form could possibly be earlier; see the coins of Zacynthus, BMC Peloponnesus, p. 101. (Hill, 210)
Zeta.02 gr_zeta-I.gif (32x32 -- 891 bytes) is the usual early form, the middle stroke being seldom if ever slanting. (Hill, 210)
Zeta.03 gr_zeta-twobar.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes)  
Eta gr_eta.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA. This form occurs early in the Ionian district (as at Teos, B.C. 544-400), and also elsewhere, as on coins of Getas king of the Edonians (about 500 B.C.). At Athens, AQE.gif (59x24 -- 1072 bytes)is retained on coins long after the Ionic H had been officially adopted, even on coins of the 'new style,' on which words are spelled in the ordinary way. Only on coins of imperial times is the archaism discarded. Elsewhere, the period of transition from E to H, toward the close of the fifth century, is an uneasy one. The same artist at Syracuse signs EYMENOY.gif (95x24 -- 1179 bytes)and EYMHNOY.gif (96x24 -- 1187 bytes)at times not far removed from each other. Gardner dates the adoption of H in the West about 425 B.C. (Hill, 209)
Eta.02 box-bar.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) Spiritus asper. the closed form is only found in the earliest times (as on the electrum coins).  Occurs as Spiritus asper on coins of Himera in the fifth century where the closed form is followed by the opn H, which disappears in Southern Italy and Sicily about 400 B.C. or a little earlier, being partly replaced by Eta.07, which is occasionally found even as late as the third century. (Hill, 210 and pl. I, 4)
Eta.03 eta-3bar.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes) Spiritus asper.  (Hill, 210) Three-rung ladder Eta
Eta.04 eta-3bar-slant.gif (32x32 -- 938 bytes) Spiritus asper. The most peculiar form, found on the earliest coins of Hiliartus in Boetia (before 550 B.C.), which is followed by Eta.03, Eta.xx and El
Eta.05   (reserved) Two-rung ladder Eta
Eta.06 eta-2bar-slant-rt.gif (32x32 -- 928 bytes) Spiritus asper.  (Hill, 210)
Eta.07 half-H.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes) Spiritus asper. Partly replacesbox-bar.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)and is occasionally found even as late as the third century. (Hill, 210 and pl. I, 4)
Eta.08 gr_epsilon.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes) At Athens,gr_epsilon.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes)form of Eta in the legend AQE.gif (59x24 -- 1072 bytes)is retained on coins long after the Ionic H had been officially adopted, even on coins of the 'new style,' on which words are spelled in the ordinary way. Only on coins of imperial times is the archaism discarded. Elsewhere, the period of transition from E to H, toward the close of the fifth century, is an uneasy one. The same artist at Syracuse signs EYMENOY.gif (95x24 -- 1179 bytes)and EYMHNOY.gif (96x24 -- 1187 bytes)at times not far removed from each other. (Hill, 209)
Theta

gr_theta.gif (32x32 -- 941 bytes)

GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA

Theta.02 gr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes) round Theta dot. Curiously enough the earliest coins of Athens, dating from early in the sixth century, havegr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes), the circle-cross.gif (32x32 -- 944 bytes)appearing later in the century, only to disappear again very shortly. (Hill, 210)
Theta.03 gr_theta_line.gif (32x32 -- 937 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL THETA SYMBOL
Theta.04 box-cross.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) square Theta cross
Theta.05 box-x.gif (32x32 -- 941 bytes) square Theta X
Theta.06 box-dot.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) square Theta dot
Theta.07 circle-cross.gif (32x32 -- 944 bytes) round Theta cross. This and similar forms may be said to disappear about the middle of the fifth century, with a few possible exceptions (thecircle-x.gif (32x32 -- 951 bytes)at Baletium in the fourth century). Curiously enough the earliest coins of Athens, dating from early in the sixth century, havegr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes), the circle-cross.gif (32x32 -- 944 bytes)appearing later in the century, only to disappear again very shortly. (Hill, 210)
Theta.08 circle-x.gif (32x32 -- 951 bytes) round Theta X disappears at Baletium in the fourth century.(Hill, 210)
Theta.09 diamond-bar.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes) diamond Theta bar
Theta.10 diamond-cross.gif (33x32 -- 935 bytes) diamond Theta cross
Theta.11 diamond-x.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes) diamond Theta X
Theta.12 diamond-dot.gif (32x32 -- 920 bytes) diamond Theta dot
Theta.13 gr_theta_alldots.gif (32x32 -- 879 bytes) seven-dot Theta
Theta.14 box-bar.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) this very late form of Theta appears on a coin of Severus Alexander in Aegeae in Cilicia. (Hill, 211)
Theta.15 gr_box-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)  
Iota gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA
Iota.02 iota-bolt.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) lightening bolt Iota is common on the earliest coins of Southern Italy and elsewhere, as at Gortyna. Its use as a late as the middle and end of the fifth century at Pandosia and Poseidonia is probably an archaism. (Hill, 211)
Iota.03 iota-halfH.gif (32x32 -- 887 bytes)  
Iota.04 iota-topangle.gif (32x32 -- 906 bytes)  
Iota.05 iota-cursiveE.gif (32x32 -- 913 bytes)  
Iota.06 beta-S.gif (32x32 -- 928 bytes) Iota takes this form at the Cretan cities of Gortyna, Lyttus and Phaestus in the fifth century. (Hill, 211)
Iota.07 xi-bar.gif (32x32 -- 891 bytes) Iota (added for TLG compatibility)
Kappa gr_kappa.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA
Kappa.02 Kappa02.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes)  
Kappa.03 gr_nu.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Kappa.04 gr_eta.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)  
Kappa.05 iota-bar.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes)  
Kappa.06 Nu07.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes)  
Kappa.07 kappa-3leg.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)  
Kappa.08 rom_X.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Kappa.09 kappa09.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes) HN, p. 448 and Icard, p. 231
Lambda gr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA. This form is common at all periods, preceding an inverted Lambda02 for instance, at Leontini.  (Hill, 211)
Lambda.02 lambda-halfleg.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes)  
Lambda.03 gr_gamma.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes)  
Lambda.04 gr_delta.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes)  
Lambda.05 rom_L.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) a variety of Lambda found on the Bisaltian coins and occasionally at Leontini. (Hill, 211)
Lambda.06 lambda_droop.gif (32x32 -- 907 bytes) very early form which occurs on coins of the Bisaltae about 500 B.C., and elsewhere later, as at Philus and Lyttus down to the middle of the fifth century. (Hill, 211)
Lambda.07 lambda_droop_inv.gif (32x32 -- 900 bytes) very early form which is rarely found after 420 B.C. in places where Greek influence was strong; but in Campania it lasts down to the early fourth century, when it is found besidegr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)(Hill, 211)
Lambda.08 lambda-halfleg-inv.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes) seen at Leontini, where it was preceded bygr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)(Hill, 211)
Mu gr_mu.gif (32x32 -- 947 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU
Mu.02 mu_wide.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes) This splayed form is common in early times, but is also found down to the latest period of Greek coinage. It is preceded by forms likemu_wide_W_clip.gif (32x32 -- 931 bytes)andmu_wide_W.gif (32x32 -- 941 bytes)but these are exceptional. (Hill, 211)
Mu.03 mu_wide_W.gif (32x32 -- 941 bytes)  
Mu.04 mu_wide_W_clip.gif (32x32 -- 931 bytes)  
Mu.05 gr_pi.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes)  
Mu.06 San.gif (32x32 -- 938 bytes) Appears in the course of the third century. In imperial times, after the period of the Antonines, we often find a form approaching the cursive. (Hill, 211)
Mu.07 Mu-04.gif (32x32 -- 967 bytes)  
Nu gr_nu.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU
Nu.02 nu_wide_V.gif (32x32 -- 922 bytes) goes out of use soon after 400 B.C. (Hill, 211)
Nu.03 Nu09.gif (32x32 -- 907 bytes) goes out of use soon after 400 B.C. (Hill, 211)
Nu.04 nu-check.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) goes out of use soon after 400 B.C. (Hill, 211)
Nu.05 rom_X.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Nu.06 gr_eta.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)  
Nu.07 Nu07.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes) oblique Nu. goes out of use soon after 400 B.C. (Hill, 211)
Nu.08 Nu08.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) an exceptional form that occurs at Agrigentum about 410 B.C. (Hill, 211)
Xi gr_xi.gif (32x32 -- 877 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI. This sound was represented in early days at Axus in Crete by KM.gif (29x19 -- 958 bytes) or KS.gif (24x17 -- 936 bytes) on the early fourth-century coins formerly attributed to 'Naxos' (Hill, 212)
Xi.02 xi-bar.gif (32x32 -- 891 bytes) a simpler form found in Italy and Sicily as early as the fifth century. Later becomes even more simple asgr_xi.gif (32x32 -- 877 bytes)(Hill, 212)
Xi.03 xi-Z.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes) (Icard, 349)
Xi.04 Xi10.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes) an early form ofgr_xi.gif (32x32 -- 877 bytes)(Hill, 212)  McLean says this form was gradually replaced bygr_xi.gif (32x32 -- 877 bytes),xi-Z.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes)and other forms from 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D.
Xi.05 xi-dot.gif (32x32 -- 878 bytes) the middle bar of Xigr_xi.gif (32x32 -- 877 bytes)tends to become shorter over time until it is often reduced to just a dot. (Hill, 212)
Xi.06 xi-horiz.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes) (Icard, 349)
Xi.07 iota-bar.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes) (Icard, 349)
Xi.08 rom_X.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes) used in the Achaean colonies in the West (Pyxus and Naxos). Even at Naxos it disappears before the end of the fifth century. (Hill, 212)
Xi.09 gr_zeta-I.gif (32x32 -- 891 bytes) A simple form found in Italy and Sicily as early as the fifth century. It becomes common under the Empire, when also we find ornamental forms such asxi-Z.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes)(Hill, 212)
Omicron gr_omicron.gif (32x32 -- 935 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON
Omicron.02 gr_box-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) is a late form (second and third centuries A.D. as on a coin of Seleucia in Syria of A.D. 157)2. Compare the formbox-bar.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes)for Theta.(Hill, 212)
Omicron.03 punc_bullet.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes) Omicron dot. The rule as to the smallness ofdegree.gif (31x32 -- 902 bytes)except in very late or careless inscriptions, is fairly well observed. Sometimes it is made so small as to become a dot. An instance of this peculiarity is afforded by the coins of Audoleon king of Paeonia, 315-286 B.C. (Hill, 212)
Omicron.04 degree.gif (31x32 -- 902 bytes) small Omicron. After the early years of the fifth century Omicron is regularly written somewhat smaller than other letters of a word, and occupies either the middle or the upper half of the writing space. The use ofdegree.gif (31x32 -- 902 bytes)for XX and XX is not properly subsequent to the close of the fifth century or the beginning of the fourth. Apparent exceptions are sometimes due to the want of space for the final XX in genitives, sometimes to dialectic peculiarities, as in the Doric xxxxxxxx on coins of Syracuse. (Hill, 212)
Omicron.05 diamond.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) occurs in Southern Italy and in Crete on coins which are probably in no case later than 450 B.C. Thediamond.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes)is as unusual in imperial times as in the first period, but may be found, e.g., in somewhat affected lettering of the obverse of a coin of Apamea (pl.XIV, 10. (Hill, 212)
Omicron.06 omicron-omega.gif (32x32 -- 938 bytes)  Omicron Omega
Omicron.07 gr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes) this form, which is not uncommon in early times, is due to the fact that in lapidary inscriptions the letter was made with a pair of compasses. (Hill, 212)
Omicron.08 gr_sigma_lunate.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes)  
Pi gr_pi.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI. Instances of this form probably do not occur, except accidentally, before about 250 B.C. (Hill, 213)
Pi.02 gr_pi_short.gif (32x32 -- 898 bytes) the usual form throughout the early period. Instances of this form probably do not occur, except accidentally, after about 200 B.C. (Hill, 213)  McLean holds that Pi evolved from this short right hasta form togr_pi.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes)from 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D.
Pi.03 gr_pi_handles.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes) appears occasionally in the second century B.C., and under the Empire it becomes almost universal.  (Hill, 213)
Pi.04 pi_open.gif (32x32 -- 910 bytes)  
Pi.05 pi-nobar.gif (32x32 -- 904 bytes) Pi topless
Pi.06 gr_sigma_lunate.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes) is confined to Crete
San San.gif (32x32 -- 938 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SAN. As a recumbent form of Sigma, it lingers on in exceptional cases, as at Poseidonia and Gortyna, to the end of the fifth century then superceded bysigma_3.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes)(Hill, 213)
San.02 mu_wide.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes) As a recumbent form of Sigma, it lingers on in exceptional cases, as at Poseidonia and Gortyna, to the end of the fifth century then superceded bysigma_3.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes)(Hill, 213)
Koppa tr_Koppa.gif (12x16 -- 881 bytes) GREEK LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA, lollipop Koppa. As the initial of the name of Corinth is retained even to the days of the Achaen League. In some places (as in Arcadia and at Syracuse) it disappears early in the fifth century ; at Croton it lasts till about 420 B.C. As a numeral (=90) it continues to be used till the latest times. (Hill, 215)
Koppa.02 koppa_dot.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes) dotted Koppa
Koppa.03 koppa_horns.gif (32x32 -- 905 bytes) crutch Koppa
Koppa.04 koppa_top.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes)  
Koppa.05 Koppa05.gif (32x32 -- 941 bytes) takes this form on a few staters of the early fifth century (Hill, 215)
[Koppa, not used] iota-bolt.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) GREEK LETTER KOPPA, lightning-bolt Koppa (modern Greek numeric). This form not known on coins as a Koppa.
Rho gr_rho.gif (32x32 -- 913 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO
Rho.02 gr_rho-point.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) pointed Rho. Gardner notes this character as late as the middle of the third century at Syracuse. (Hill, 213)
Rho.03 half-H.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes)  
Rho.04 rho-topbar.gif (32x32 -- 887 bytes) Rho topbar 
Rho.05 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Rho.06 rho-tail.gif (32x32 -- 922 bytes) short-tailed Rho
Rho.07 rho-point-tail.gif (32x32 -- 927 bytes) angular tailed Rho. It may safely be said that this form does not occur after 400 B.C., but disappearance may be some twenty or thirty years earlier. (Hill, 213)
Rho.08 pi_open.gif (32x32 -- 910 bytes)  
Rho.09 rho09.gif (32x32 -- 923 bytes) Latin Rho
Rho.10 rho10.gif (32x32 -- 910 bytes) footed Rho. The rho10_retro.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes)retrograde version appears on coins of Arcadia: Heraea (HN, p. 447)
Sigma gr_sigma.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA. (Four-bar sigma.) As early as the fourth century, this form occurs, for instance, at Sicyon (BMC Peloponnesus, pl. 8, 21). It prevails until the early years of the first century A.D. By the end of the century it may be said to be generally displaced bygr_sigma_sq-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes)andgr_sigma_lunate.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes)although it still occurs frequently. (Hill, 213)
Sigma.02 gr_sigma_lunate.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL (provisionally accepted)]. Early instances are rare; occurs on the coins of Cos which is probably earlier than 300 B.C. (BMC Caria, p. 195, 16) and on others of the same place which are certainly earlier than 190 B.C. ; on one of Seleucus II of Syria, 246-226 B.C. (Imhoof-Blumer, Monn. Gr., p. 427). ; at Salapia, at Agrigentum, and other Sicilian towns before the end of the third century. (Hill, 213-214)
Sigma.03 gr_sigma_sq-nouni.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes) The less common of the two "C" forms. Early instances are rare; this for is later appearing thangr_sigma_lunate.gif (32x32 -- 929 bytes); it has been noted on a coin of Antiochus IV, 175-164 B.C. (Imhoof-Blumer, Monn. Gr., p. 430). It is fairly common during the early Empire, and again from the middle of the third century onwards. (Hill, 213-214)
Sigma.04 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Sigma.05 iota-bolt.gif (32x32 -- 915 bytes) Three-bar sigma. This early standing form is usual until soon after the beginning of the fifth century. (The Sigma in PAISTANO.gif (94x21 -- 1174 bytes)about 300 B.C. is Italic, not Greek.) At Syracuse it had probably disappeared by 500 B.C. Superceded bysigma_3.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes)(Hill, 213).  McLean mentions that the three-bar sigma is replaced by the four-bar sigmagr_sigma.gif (32x32 -- 902 bytes)somewhat erratically but was near complete by 446 B.C. and the transition finished by 415 B.C. in all inscriptions.
Sigma.06 beta-S.gif (32x32 -- 928 bytes) This form is found until about 476 B.C., e.g., at Messana. superceded bysigma_3.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes)(Hill, 213)
Sigma.07 sigma_1.gif (32x32 -- 910 bytes)  
Sigma.08 sigma_2.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes) Five-bar sigma
Sigma.09 sigma_3.gif (32x32 -- 916 bytes) In use down to the first century B.C., and may occur even later owing to careless writing. (Hill, 213)
Sigma.10 sigma10.gif (32x32 -- 906 bytes) three-bar right angle sigma (for TLG compatibility)
Sho Sho.gif (32x32 -- 907 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SHO - Bactrian letter. See n2411 proposal for details.
Tau gr_Sampi03.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU
Tau.02 tau-slant.gif (32x32 -- 906 bytes)  
Tau.03 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Tau.04 half-H.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes)  
Upsilon gr_upsilon.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON. Probablyrom_V.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)is earlier thangr_upsilon.gif (32x32 -- 909 bytes)but the two appear to go side by side throughout the whole history of Greek coinage.  The approximation of one to the other in careless writing, especially when the lines are slightly curved, is naturally very close. (Hill, 214)
Upsilon.02 rom_V.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)
Upsilon.03 gr_delta-inv.gif (32x32 -- 926 bytes)  
Upsilon.04 upsilon_curly.gif (32x32 -- 911 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON HOOK
Upsilon.05 upsilon_right.gif (32x32 -- 914 bytes)  
Upsilon.06 U-stemless.gif (32x32 -- 931 bytes)  
Phi gr_phi.gif (32x32 -- 937 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI. The tendency in later times is to lengthen the hasta of the letter, and make the circle small. (Hill, 214)
Phi.02 iota-bar.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes)  
Phi.03 box-vertbar.gif (32x32 -- 908 bytes)  
Phi.04 gr_iota.gif (32x32 -- 882 bytes)  
Phi.05 rom_X.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Phi.06 half-H.gif (32x32 -- 889 bytes)  
Phi.07 circle-slash.gif (32x32 -- 944 bytes)  
Phi.08 circle-vertbar.gif (32x32 -- 949 bytes) this form is not uncommon before the middle of the fifth century. (Hill, 214)
Phi.09 gr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes) A rare form which is only known from two coins, one of Phocaes, dating to about 600 B.C. (Hill, pl. I, 2), the other of Phaselis, earlier than 466 B.C. (Hill, 214)
Phi.10 iota-dots.gif (32x32 -- 891 bytes) doubledot Phi is a late form of which an early instance is found at Phoenice in Epirus about 200 B.C., but is commoner in imperial times. (Hill, 214)
Chi gr_chi.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI
Chi.02 psi-Vee.gif (32x32 -- 917 bytes)  
Chi.03 psi-tree.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes) early form gives way togr_chi.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)during the fifth century (Hill, 214)
Chi.04 iota-bar.gif (32x32 -- 890 bytes) early form gives way togr_chi.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes)during the fifth century (Hill, 214)
Psi gr_psi.gif (32x32 -- 928 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI
Psi.02 psi-tree.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes) later thanpsi-Vee.gif (32x32 -- 917 bytes), this form is used regularly after the fifth century (Hill, 214)
Psi.03 psi-Vee.gif (32x32 -- 917 bytes) See, for instance, the name of the river god Hypsas at Selinus in Sicily. This form is earlier thanpsi-tree.gif (32x32 -- 919 bytes)(Hill, 214)
Psi.04 gr_chi.gif (32x32 -- 925 bytes) HN, p. 453
Psi.05 psi05.gif (32x32 -- 938 bytes) HN, p. 453
Psi.06 psi06.gif (32x32 -- 932 bytes) HN, p. 453
Omega gr_omega.gif (32x32 -- 936 bytes) GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA. Comes in about 410 B.C. in Sicily ; in Greece a few years later. About the middle of the third century it begins for a time to be written smaller than the other letters, and the horizontal lines are made longer in proportion. The horizontal lines begin to degenerate into mere serifs in early imperial times, although a well-formedgr_omega.gif (32x32 -- 936 bytes)is still often found. (Hill, 214-215)
Omega.02 omega_cursive_W.gif (32x32 -- 951 bytes) cursive Omega. This form occurs on a coin of Antiochus II (261-246 B. C.) and this is an exceptionally early instance. It is very common in imperial times. (Hill, 214)
Omega.03 gr_theta_dot.gif (32x32 -- 942 bytes)  
Omega.04 gr_omicron.gif (32x32 -- 935 bytes) Used in alphabets not belonging to the Ionic group. (Hill, 214)
Omega.05 gr_lambda.gif (32x32 -- 924 bytes)  
Omega.06 omega_W.gif (32x32 -- 923 bytes) a late form, hardly occurring before the time of Septimius Severus  (Hill, 215)
Omega.07 omega_angular.gif (32x32 -- 932 bytes)  
Omega.08 omega_nofeet.gif (32x32 -- 933 bytes)  
Omega.09 Omega09.gif (32x32 -- 911 bytes) this form is never very common, but is found as early as the first century B.C. (Hill, 215)
Omega.10 degree.gif (31x32 -- 902 bytes) Used in alphabets not belonging to the Ionic group. (Hill, 214)
Omega.11 Omega11.gif (32x32 -- 937 bytes)  
Omega.12 Omega12.gif (32x32 -- 907 bytes) About the middle of the third century, Omega begins for a time to be written smaller than the other letters, and the horizontal lines are made longer in proportion. (Hill, 214)
Sampi gr_sampi-uni.gif (32x32 -- 937 bytes) GREEK LETTER SAMPI
Sampi.02 Sampi02.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes) Hill calls this form "San" which appears on coins of Mesembria. (Hill, 215). It was named "Disigma" by other late 19th century, early 20th century numismatists. See page on this topic.
Sampi.03 gr_Sampi03.gif (32x32 -- 888 bytes) This form also appears on the coins of Mesembria as a variant ofSampi02.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes)
Sampi.04 Sampi04.gif (31x32 -- 905 bytes) Hill gives this Pamphylian form, which appears on the coins of Perga, as a double sigma and analogous to theSampi02.gif (32x32 -- 895 bytes)which appears on coins of Mesembria. (Hill, 215). It was named "Disigma" by other late 19th century, early 20th century numismatists. See page discussing this topic.

____________________
Notes:
1. Hill (209) cites Evans, Num. Chr. 1896, p. 116, for its late occurrence.
2. Wroth, BMC Galatia, etc., p. 272 no. 31, Pl. 32, 10.


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